地理科学 ›› 1983, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (3): 233-240.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.233

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

河口海岸带的地理系统和生态系统

徐君亮   

  1. 广州地理研究所
  • 出版日期:1983-05-20 发布日期:1983-05-20

THE GEOSYSTEM AND ECOSYSTEM OF THE ESTUARY AND COASTAL ZONE

Xu Junliang   

  1. Guangzhou Institute of Geography
  • Online:1983-05-20 Published:1983-05-20

摘要: 七十年代以来,河口海岸科学在继续向水文、动力地貌、海岸工程等部门学科深入的同时,也向环境、资源和生态系统保护的综合研究方向发展。近年来美国海岸带的研究,在环境、社会经济和工程的基础上,又特别强调资源、生态系统、计划、管理和法规等综合研究。

Abstract: The development and evolution of the estuary and coastal zone depend upon the dynamic processes of rivers, tides, waves, and littoral currents,etc. Chemical sedimentation and biological processes are also at work, but the dynamic processes are the most important. Human activities including Coastal engineering, industrial and agricultural pollution and improper fishery may contribute great effects to the modification. The modern estuary and Coastal zone results from the interrelation and interaction between various natural processes and human activities. It is a special physical geosystem affected by both continental and oceanic factors. The geosystem may be classified into four specific systems: dynamic system, environmental quality system,natural resource system and ecosystem. In the geosystem the ecosystem is an organic system whose limits coincide with those of the former. The upper limit of the coastal zone may be determined by the uppermost reach of the forces of tides, currents and waves as expressed by their erosion and accumulation, while the lower limit is defined by the reach of con-tinental physical and chemical processes indicated by river discharge, as well as by pollution. The estuary and coastal zone is not only a special geosystem but a special ecosystem as well. The limits of the coastal zone tally compara-tively with the differentiation of the regional geographical complex and meet the needs of the comprehensive development of the coastal zone resources. The geosystem and ecosystem of the estuary and coastal zone have two properties:first, the processes proceed rapidly; secondly, the processes may be disturbed by human activities, the latter being more important. Hence the study of the influence of human activities on the geosystem structure and the ecolo-gical balance is an urgent task.