地理科学 ›› 1983, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (4): 287-302.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.287

• 论文 •    下一篇

地理信息系统的探索与试验

陈述彭   

  1. 中国科学院遥感应用研究所
  • 出版日期:1983-07-20 发布日期:1983-07-20

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM EXPLORATIN AND EXPERIMENTS

Chen Shupeng   

  1. Institute of Remote Sensing Application, Academia Sinica
  • Online:1983-07-20 Published:1983-07-20

摘要: 地理信息系统是最近十五年发展起来的。简称 GIS(Geographic Information Sy-stem,Geobased Information System,或 Geo-referenced Information System,Geo-Co-ded Information System)。名称虽稍有出入,内容则大同小异。

Abstract: Geographic Information System (GIS),developed since last fifteen years,consists basically of:a common geographic base,data digitization and standardization procedure,and a muliti-dimension structure.Its evolution eflects the following characteristics of geosciences: --regional Integrating capability --dynamic monitoring ability --the third generation of geographic language China has paid attention to exploring GIS since 1980 and several thematicexperiments have been conducted in some study areas since then.The experiments which could only be carried out at the thematic level or on the selected areasare due to the lack of large computer systems available in related organizations. 1.Prestudy on Data Acquisition During the 1978’s remote sensing experiment in Tengchong,series thematic mapping by using color IR aerial photographs as the same information source was realized.Meanwhile,the possibility of derivating various thematical maps based on a common landscape unit was also studied.this was actually the thematic extraction from same remote sensing data and then the presentation of the information extracted on a series of maps under a“standard”map scale (e.g.,1:100,000).This work is known an essential procedure in any GIS Sobjects related in the experiment are mentioned below,from what the primary knowledge of data acquisition was learnt.A.The relationship between landscape unit and the cartographic unit.B.Digital terrain model.C.Image enhancement and classification D.Computer assist cartography for statistical data Only the polygon system was used in the Tengchong experiment,Neither grid system nor network system was studied during that priod.2.A Model of Regional Data Bank A experiment system consisting of a IBM370/158 computer,IMS system,aJTS-86 digital Controlled plotter was constructed.Meanwhile attention was also given to studying the applicability of microprocessor a GIS,in order to populize mini-system at the county level for agricultral nagement,planning,inquriing,analizing and mapping.To establsh the model,experiments were conducted on the following aspects:A.Information acquisiton In this field,the methodology for data acquisition from various data sources and the techniques for information registration were experimented.Techniques concering thematic information presentation and digitization were also explored.B.Data processing The study covered such a great diversity of activities as software development for interface system,data assessment system,data input system and utility program package.C.Output and application In this scope,it provides programs for quality evaluation,dynamic analysis and forecasting models.The application covers such areas as assessment of subbmersion losses caused by reservoir construction,water resources estimation,land resource inventory,environmental quality evaluation and population developpment analysis,and etc.D.Integration analysis in case study areas In an industral area,data concerning land use,population and social economic statistics,environmental quality evaluation,resources exploration problem were integrately analized.In an agricultural area,fourteen different types of data were dollected and then analized on two levels.8.Data Base At The County Level The Institute of Geography of Academia Sinica has completed a county boun-dary data base of the whole country (Liu Yue and Liang Qizhang,1982),whi-ch provides the polygon spatial information of county administration boundari-es for over 2800 counties.The base also provides the map base for cartographic automation of the social economic data,resources inventory and for regional integrated anlysis at national scale,This data base has more than 150 fries,including 30 programs for file generation,maintainance,updating,exploration and application,and etc.The Instiute of Geography used the data base in the statistical analysis of some local deseases and in producing population distribution maps and densitymaps at the scale of 1:4,000,000.The results were well successful.In summary,the experiments so far conducted effect works on GIS covering a number of areas,The main achievements are as following:A.Primary experiences relating to the construction of data bases at different levels such as national,county,commune and landscape unit are gained,and the relationship between these levels and ground resolution of remote sensing data are studied.B.Primary understanding of the key technical problems such as improving map measurement and transfering accuracy,information registration between naturall and social economic data,updating data base by using Landsat data are gained.C.Some application software for statistical analysis and cartographic automation were developed or partly improved,which has opened a new channel for geographically integrated study,thematic series apping,remote sensing and telemetry technique.D.The possibility for cooperation at provincial level or county level,or between different water basins are studied.In short,basing on conventional geography,compurtational mathematics,photogrammetry and the remote sensing technique have stimulated further studies on the subject.For example,population,social survey,agricultural,forest,water resources,environment monitoring and urban planning departments have prepared to establish various data base to make their needs.There is a strong tendency for qualitative analysis in geosciences and biology.Such as mathematical geology,biological athematics,geographical qualitative analysis,glacier records,and etc.have been receiving increasingly attentions,Thus a favarable condition for the development of GIS is evident.