地理科学 ›› 1984, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (4): 293-302.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.293

• 论文 •    下一篇

欧亚大陆东部高山苔原的南缘

黄锡畴   

  1. 中国科学院长春地理研究所
  • 出版日期:1984-07-20 发布日期:1984-07-20

THE SOUTHERN BOUNDARY OF ALPINE TUNDRA IN THE EAST EURASIA

Huang Xichou   

  1. Changchun Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica
  • Online:1984-07-20 Published:1984-07-20

摘要: 苔原(Tundra)是欧亚大陆和北美大陆高纬度的无林地带,是大陆三个环球性的自然景观地带之一。它具有特定的气候、植被、土壤和自然景观类型。苔原分平原苔原和山地苔原。

Abstract: On the alpine zone, adore timberline and below snowline, there are various types of vegetation and natural landscape. The author has divided the alpine zone in the temperate zone of Eurasia into3 types, i.e. alpine meadow, alpine sleppe, and alpine tundra. The distribution of the alpine tundra zone in the East Eurasia can stretch right to China’s Changbai mountains where is situated at the middle latitude, the reason is that besides influence of the Quaternary glaciation, the monsoon climate of northern Pacific is main factor. Based on landscape ecologic analysis in the Changbai Mountains’alpine tundra zone, the author points out that the specific ecologic environment, biological community and eco-biologic characte istics of plant, all of those comprehensively constitute a interractive, adaptive each other the alpine tundra landscape. Some Japan’s literatures haven’t divided various types of alpine vegetation and natural landscape, and only have gaven a joint name-alpine zone or alpine vegetation. The paper has mainly approached to answer the question whether the vegetation type and natural landscape of the alpine zone on the mountains adove timberline in Hokkaido of Japan belong to alpine tundra or not. From the poin: of view of ecologic environment (eco-climatic condition, periglacial landforms and soil type etc.) and biocenosis (composition of plant species, structure of community, life form and ecologic characteristics of plant etc.) the author has compared the alpine zone of Daisetsu with one of the Changbai Nits. The result shows that the two areas have very simular ecologic environments. The alpine vegetation in Dassetsu cosists of shrub, subshrub, perennial herds, moss and lichen etc, as the same as ones in Changbai. The Daisetsu has 230 species of vascular plants, in which the same species as that in Changbai mrs. makes up 17%, the same genus makes up over 60%. prof. Koji Ito has divided the alpine zone of Daisetsu into 6 communities, apari from pinus pumila, 5 communities are the same as that divided by us. The differences only are on construction species and dominant species. Therefore, the vegetation and natural landscape type of Daisetsu mountains should be put in alpine tundra. The Daisetsu alpine tundra belongs to a marine type and the Changbai alpine tundra belongs to a coast type. In general, the two alpine tundra zones are situated at the southern boundary of alpine tundra of Eurasia.