地理科学 ›› 1986, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (4): 323-332.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.323

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国东部主要河流中悬浮物及底泥的环境地球化学基本特征

陈静生, 郑春江, 高广生, 程承旗   

  1. 北京大学地理系
  • 出版日期:1986-07-20 发布日期:1986-07-20

THE MAIN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSPENDED MATTER AND SEDIMENTS IN MAIN RIVERS IN EAST CHINA

Chen Jingsheng, Zheng Chunjiang, Gao Guangshing, Cheng Chengqi   

  1. Department of Geography, Beijing University
  • Online:1986-07-20 Published:1986-07-20

摘要: 本文给出了中国东部五条主要河流悬浮物、底泥的环境地球化学基本特征。结果表明:受河流流域不同的地质、地理条件制约,从北到南这些特征具有明显的区域分异规律。

Abstract: The basic environmental geochemical characteristics of suspended mattel and sediments in five main rivers—the Hailongjiang River, the Songhua River, the Huanghe River, the Changjiang River and the Zhujiang River—in east China studied by the authors include followings: the physical composition of suspended matter and sediments, the composition and properties of organic matter and clay manirals, the ion exchange capacity of suspended matter and sediments, the adsorptive power of Cd, and the contents of various elements in suspended matter. The results show that controlled by the geographic and geological conditions in basins of the rivers mentioned above, the environmental geochemical characteristics present specific differential rules. 1) The sequence of contents of clay particles (<0.005mm) in sediments is the Changjiang River>the Heilongjiang River>the Huanghe River>>the Zhujiang River>the Songhua River; in suspended matter is the Zhujiang River≥the Songhua River>the Changjiang River>>the Huanghe River. 2 ) The ratios of K/M (K:Kaotinite, M:Monlmorittonite), E4/E6 (E:Optical density of humic acid),H/F (H:Humic, F:Fulvic) increase gradaully from north rivers to south ones. 3) The cation exchange capacity and adsorptive power of Cd on the bulk sediments, clay particles and humic matter are higher in north rivers than that in south rivets. 4) Qm K(both are characteristic value of adsorption isotherm) and other parameters show that the adsorptive power of sediments and suspended matter for the heavy metals is ions the largest in north rivers. 5) The concentration of most trace metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg in the suspended matter are the highest in the Zhujiang River. One of the reasons is that many large metalliferous ores distribute on the Zhujiang River basin.