地理科学 ›› 1988, Vol. 8 ›› Issue (1): 38-46,99.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.38

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

内蒙古锡林河流域草甸草原的特点及其对黑钙土形成过程的影响

陈佐忠, 黄德华   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所 北京
  • 出版日期:1988-01-20 发布日期:1988-01-20

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MEADOW GRASSLAND AND ITS EFFECTS ON CHERNOZEM FORMATION PROCESS IN THE XILIN RIVER VALLEY,INNER MONGOLIA

Chen Zuozhong, Huang Dehua   

  1. Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, Beijing
  • Online:1988-01-20 Published:1988-01-20

摘要: 本文采用地理调查与定位研究相结合的方法,对锡林河流域黑钙土的分布及其有关植被类型、植物群落特征、生物量等进行了调查,探讨了植物化学元素组成、凋落物分解与土壤之间的物质流,揭示了黑钙土形成的植被条件与黑钙土形成过程的关系。

Abstract: The types of vegetation,the structure of plant community and the chemical composition of plants make an important impact on soil formation process,soil nature and its profile shape. The chernozem of Inner Mongolia distributes at the east and northeast of the Hulun Buir Plateau and the western part of the Daxinganling Mountains, The chernozem of the Xilin River valley distributes at the east of this area. The meadow grassland includes three types:arid-cluster-grass grassland, Aneurolepidium grassland and Filifolium grassland.Their dominant species are Stipa baicalensis,Aneurolepidium chinese and Filifolium sibiricum,respectively. The arid-cluster-grass grassland consists of 45 plant species.The number of species in each square metre is 29-39,among which Gramineae accounts for 17.78%,Leguminosa 11.11%,Compositae 11.11%,the others are Liliaceae, etc.The coverage is 64%.The community is 19cm high.The biomass of aboveground(W1) is 179.84g·m-2,in which Gramineae makes up 67.73%.The biomass of underground(W2 at depth of 0-100cm soil horizon)is 2266.99g· m-2,the biomass at depth of 0-30cm soil horizon makes up 75.16% of the total underground biomass.Its r(W2/W1) is 12.61. The Aneouropidium grassland consists of 28 species,among them,there are 5 species of Gramineae,4 species of Compositae and 2 species of Leguminosa.The total coverage is 70%,the height of the community is 30cm.The biomass of aboveground is 96.22-167.47g·m-2,in which Graminea makes up 29.50-73.27%.The biomass of underground is 906.4-2600.82g·m-2,the bio mass at depth of 0-30cm soil horizon is 61.41-59.46% of the total underground biomass.Their r is 15.53 and 9.42. The Filifolium grass/and consists of 30 species and varies in 20-22 species in each square metre.Among 30 species,Gramineae makes up 20%.The total coverage,is 53%,the community is 23.3cm in height.The biomass of Filifolium grassland is much higher than those of Stipa and Aneuropidium grassland,reaches 236.48g·m-2.The biomass of Compositae makes up 57.22% of the total.Its underground biomass at depth of 0-100cm soil horizon gets to 3254.02g·m-2,the biomass at depth of 0-30cm soil horizon makes up 66.35% of the total.But its r gets to 13.76. The nitrogen content of Compositae is the highest in all samples analysed, accouting for 2.62%,but nitrogen content of Gramineae is the lowest,only 1.46%.The nitrogen accumulation of Gramineae is the highest in the aboveglound,1390.39mg·m-2,It makes up 53.06% of the aboveground. The ash content of Leguminosa makes up 11.037%,but the ash content of Stipa gandis only 4.938%.The ash accumulation of Gramineae is the highest,3039.20mg·m-2, makes up 47.28% of aboveground accumulation. The molecular ratio of SiO2/R2O3 has an effect on the clay mineral formation.The molecular ratio of SiO2/R3O4 in Aneurolepidium grassland is much wider,it varies from 13.68 to 148.23.The chemical composition and its accumulated amount of underground biomass plays an important role in the accumulation and activity of nutrient elements in soil.The content and accumulated amount of Si in 0-10cm soil horizon is the highest among all chemical elements,the older of others is as follows:Ca,N,Fe,K,AL,Na,S,Mg,P.The molecular ratio of SiO2/R2O3 in the underground biomass varies from 19.75— 30,40.