地理科学 ›› 1993, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (3): 279-287,296.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.279

• 研究报道 • 上一篇    下一篇

长白山西麓哈尼泥炭沼泽初探

乔石英   

  1. 吉林省地矿局第二地质调查所 吉林 132011
  • 收稿日期:1992-02-01 出版日期:1993-05-20 发布日期:1993-05-20

A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON HANI PEAT-MIRE IN THE WEST PART OF THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAIN

Qiao Shiying   

  1. The Second Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology and Minteral Resoucces of Jilin Province, Jilin 132011
  • Received:1992-02-01 Online:1993-05-20 Published:1993-05-20

摘要: 哈尼沼泽形成于晚更新世。距今9000年开始积聚泥炭,经历了从低位至中位的发展阶段。中全新世金龙顶子火山爆发,熔岩流又自西部堰塞湖盆,使之再次进入水分充足的富营养阶段。至今泥炭沼泽复从低位一中位向高位阶段发展。泥炭层系中保留着气候,植被及地质环境演变的记录。

Abstract: Hani is located in the west of the Changbai Mountain, which is one of the large peat-mires in the northeast of China. Its area is about 18km2. The vegetation girdles about the mire, whose transition between the groups is obvious. The mire is evidently controlled by the fault lake basin. The peat occurs in a single layer 1-9 m in depth. Although the low-moor peat is the main part of the mire, there are still some mid-fen peat in the deep and at the surface, the raised bog peat stratum is only 1 cm. Overall it is a developing peat-mire. The area entered the stage of forming peat 9000 years ago. Some mid-fen peat was formed at the beginning of the middle Holocene epoch. During 5000-6000 yr. B. P. the Jinlongdingzi volcano erupted, which caused forests destruction, the ground water level rising and the lava blocking up again. This caused the marly and sand layer edposition, then came to the stage of development of low-moor again, which lasted till the Late Holocene epoch. There remain the trails of volcanic activity about recent 1100 years in the mire. The reasons why volcanic active zones usually company with peat-mire are as follows: 1. The volcanic activity of the Cenozoic era is usually the response or the precursor of the split and sink of the crust. Quite a few of the volcano erupted along the fault basin. The crust is still in the stage of settlement, which provided the geological structural condition to form peat. 2. The volcanic lava and pyroelast have both the property of pyrogenie rock and sedimentary rock. It supplies a geomorphological environment easily to store water such as dish-like lacuna, crater lake and barrier lake, tec. 3. Most of the basins are situated on one or several fault zones, which are the cannel of ground water and the stable resource to the mire water. The hydrophilous plantsgrow luxuriantly in the basin. 4. In the volcanic area, the air is saturated with CO2 and the volcanic products contain so much dissolved minerals that make the plant grow luxuriantly. Then the abundant substance is provided for the accumulation of peat. The large scale peat-mire will form if all the above factors combine best with the appropriate hydrothermal conditions.