地理科学 ›› 1997, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (4): 289-296.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.289

• 论文 •    下一篇

北极中心海域海冰特征、积雪及变质过程

效存德, 秦大河, 任贾文   

  1. 中国科学院兰州冰川冻土研究所, 兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:1996-10-17 修回日期:1997-04-02 出版日期:1997-07-20 发布日期:1997-07-20
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院专项基金;冰芯与寒区环境开放研究实验室资助项目

THE FEATURE OF SEA ICE COVER, SNOW DISTRIBUTION AND ITS DENSIFICATION IN THE CENTRAL ARCTICA

Xiao Cunde, Qin Dahe, Ren Jiawen   

  1. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, Lanzhou 730000
  • Received:1996-10-17 Revised:1997-04-02 Online:1997-07-20 Published:1997-07-20

摘要: 根据我国首次北极地区的考察观测资料,分析了北冰洋88°N~90°N考察路段上海冰形态和雪层剖面特征,划分出3种海冰形态类型和相应的积雪分布形式,指出了不同积雪分布形式下雪深测量、雪层剖面观测以及雪坑采样的适宜性。海冰上覆积雪的积消过程表现为缓慢的积累和快速的消融,雪深空间分布与降水来源有极大的关系。遥感监测和雪层剖面观测证明北冰洋海冰上覆积雪无明显“年积累”大于“年消融”的区域,属于季节性积雪.

Abstract: Based on the observation of sea ice cover and measurement of snow depths and stratigraphies during China’s First North Pole Scientific Expedition (from Apr. 24 to May 6, 1995, Beijing time), three types of surface features of sea ice and correspondely three styles of snow distributions in the central Arctica are classified. It’s considered that the classification will help the siting of snow depth measurement, stratigaphic observation and snowpit sampling. The snow cover is slowly accumulated during the long Arctic winter, approximately from September to early May next year, while its ablation show abrupt from south to north. By the end of Augest, the snow cover is almost totally removed. The spatial distribution of snow depth is characterised by a south north decreasing trends, which is thought to result from the remote vapor sources, i.e., that the major vapor over the Arctic regions is transported from the mid latitude. The stratigraphy of the snowpits is characterised by the extensively existed depth hoar at the lower part of the pits, which is obviously a signal of the beginning of the long Arctic winter. The present of infiltered ice adhere to sea ice surface at the end of the ablation season indicate that the annual accumulation is approximately equals to the annual ablation near north pole.