地理科学 ›› 2000, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (1): 14-19.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.14

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江平原大面积开荒对自然环境影响及区域生态环境保护

刘兴土, 马学慧   

  1. 中国科学院长春地理研究所 吉林长春130021
  • 收稿日期:1999-05-10 修回日期:1999-07-15 出版日期:2000-01-20 发布日期:2000-01-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(49671002);国家“九五”科技攻关专题(96-004-02-10)

Influence of Large-Scale Reclamation on Natural Environment and Regional Environmental Protection in the Sanjiang Plain

LIU Xing-tu, MA Xue-hui   

  1. Changchun Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun Jilin 130021
  • Received:1999-05-10 Revised:1999-07-15 Online:2000-01-20 Published:2000-01-20

摘要: 根据多年在三江平原野外考察积累的大量资料,对比开垦前后不同年代的数据,分析三江平原大面积开荒引起的区域环境变化,包括生态类型的变化、土地退化、水环境变化以及动植物资源的变化等,并在总结三江平原开荒过程中经验教训的基础上提出区域环境保护对策。

Abstract: There was a sparse population in the Sanjiang Plain before the 19th century. At the beginning of the liberation, the farmland area was merely 78.6×106 hm2. So, the plain is famous for “the great northern wildness”. With the rapid increase of population and goverment investment, the farmland area had been 457.24×104 hm2 up to 1994. With reclamation over 40 years, the area of mire had decreased over 300×104 hm2, and the area of forest land decreased 307×104 hm2 by 1983, much more than that in 1949. Reclaiming and destorying forest and grass land has led to a series of ecological problems, such as the worse of soil erosion, the intrease of local desertification area and water erosion, the emphasis on reclamation rather than harness, the emphasis on use only rather than culture, the divorce between reclamation and construction, and result in the decrease at different level of cultivated soil fertility, and the intensification of pollution of farm chemicals, chemical fertilizer and surface water. In recent years, growing rice in large scale by well-irrigation has led to the falling of local ground water level. At the same time, it also has resulted in the destruction of biodiversity and the decrease of valuable and rare animals and plants. In order to restore and protect regional eco environment, it is imperative to stop reclaiming at once, take the way to reform middle and low yield cropland mainly, to strengthen effective management of mire nature reserves, to improve shelter-forest system, combine use with culture, culture soil, rational plan and use land. We should set up superior structure of agriculture forestry and stock raising, improve regional eco environment and reinforce sustainable use of regional resources.

中图分类号: 

  • X21