地理科学 ›› 2000, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (5): 456-461.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.456

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

论旅游资源中石灰华景观的形态建成过程——以四川九寨沟和贵州黄果树等地石灰华群为例

田友萍, 何复胜   

  1. 1. 南京大学城市与资源学系, 江苏 南京 210093;
    2. 贵州师范大学生物研究所, 贵州 贵阳 550001
  • 收稿日期:1999-05-10 修回日期:1999-12-28 出版日期:2000-09-20 发布日期:2000-09-20

A Discussion on Formation Process of Tufa Landscape as Tour Resources——A Case study of the tufa in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan and Huangguoshu,Guizhou etc.

TIAN You-ping, HE Fu-sheng   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Resource, Nanjing University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210093;
    2. Institute of Biology, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001
  • Received:1999-05-10 Revised:1999-12-28 Online:2000-09-20 Published:2000-09-20

摘要: 在众多风景旅游资源中,石灰华景观以其独特壮丽的形态为世人所瞩目,并引发出一系列对其成因的解释。本文通过对四川九寨沟和贵州黄果树等旅游地区的石灰华景观进行考察和研究,认为,石灰华景观的形态建成过程主要是受生物、地形和水文的共同控制。其中,生物的控制作用处于十分重要或中心地位,生物(蓝藻、绿藻等低等生物)通过与沉积物颗粒紧密结合形成的藻席的成层加积和侧向延伸生长,与地形、水文等因素一起共同引导和控制着石灰华景观的形成和发育规模。文中提出了旅游资源中瀑华和坝华等主要石灰华景观的形态建成过程模式,为石灰华景观旅游资源的科学保护提出理论依据。

Abstract: Tufa landscape is an important component of the world karst landforms.Owing to its tremendous scale, peculiar form and wonderful colour, tufa landscape becomes very valuable karst tour resources.For example, Plitvice national park of Yugslavia, Jiuzhaigou, Huangguoshu and Maling gorge of China.All of them are famous scenic spots which take tremendous scale tufa landscapes as the main scenic body.Many reports had explained formation process of tufa landscapes.The vast majority of research workers think that formation process of tufa landscapes is controlled mainly by karst water and landform place related to karst water current, and organisms only participate in(e.g.organisms absorb CO2 through photosynthesis and result in CaCO3 deposit in water) or controlled the formation of small tufa shapes.Very few research workers understand the organisms control role of tufa landscapes(large tufa shape) which should not be ignored.However, through a lot of on the spot surveies and laboratory researches of the tufa landscape in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan and Huangguoshu, Guizhou etc., it is believed that organisms(Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta) are associated closely with deposits and form algae mats, which not only play key role to generation and formation process of tufa are on a cause position, but also control exceedingly the formation scale of tufa landscape through repeated layered accumulation and side extension of mats.Therefore, formation process of tufa landscape is controlled by organisms, topography and hydrology.Among them, organisms are on an important or center position.Models of formation process of main tufa landscapes(waterfall tufa, dam tufa and beach tufa, as tour resources) are put forward in the paper.Studying organisms control role of tufa landscape has important theoretical value in Biokarst, Sedimentology and Karst geomorphology and new guide role to scientific protection and utilization of tufa landscape tour resources.This paper is composed of two parts.Frist part is the base shape of tufa landscapes and analyses and models of its shape formation process.Tufa landscapes are mainly waterfall tufa, dam tufa and beach tufa.Waterfall tufa often appear on Knick point of considerable drop river.e.g.Shuzheng waterfall tufa and Luorinang waterfall tufa(in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan), Huangguoshu waterfall tufa(in Guizhou).These waterfall tufas often consist of a lot of tufa bodies whose shapes are diverse.some show cone and hang on waterfall wall, for example, Huangguoshu waterfall tufa,top of cone tufa bodies often adhere to the place where direction of flowing water in river change suddenly; Some show mushroom’s head shape, lung’s lobe shape, broom shape etc.It is hollow between some tufa bodies and bedrock, and form tufa cave.Some tufa bodies cover tightly bedrock, and are solid.It is closely related to the slope of rock under tufa bodies that tufa bodies are hollow or solid.Formation process of waterfall landscape is explained in the paper throught explaining an instance of formation process of typical cone Huangguoshu waterfall tufa(abbreviate "cone tufa").Dam tufa often appear on Knick point and protuberance of river.Beach tufa often appear on slope and beach of river.The article analyses models of these tufas formation process.It is thought that organisms are the main "builder" of these tufa.So these tufa may be named biotufa.Second part of the paper is the conclusion.

中图分类号: 

  • P931.5