地理科学 ›› 2001, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (4): 315-322.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.315

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

克鲁格曼的多中心城市空间自组织模型评析

刘安国, 杨开忠   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学系 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2000-03-08 修回日期:2000-10-15 出版日期:2001-07-20 发布日期:2001-07-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目"区域复杂空间格局演化规律的研究"(项目批准号:49971027)部分成果。

Comments on Krugman’s Edge City Model

LIU An-guo, YANG Kai-zhong   

  1. Dept. of Urban and Environment Science, Peking University, Beijing, 100871
  • Received:2000-03-08 Revised:2000-10-15 Online:2001-07-20 Published:2001-07-20

摘要: 在传统的空间经济格局研究中,以杜能为代表的古典区位论和以克里斯塔勒与廖什为代表的近代区位论将经济活动所表现出来的规则性视为理所当然的,对于为什么会产生这样的规则性,人们却不得而知。1990年代,新经济地理学的主要代表人物克鲁格曼将对自组织系统的跨学科研究所取得的成果运用于经济学研究之中,建立起多中心城市的空间自组织模型。他以对厂商之间的向心力和离心力及其相互作用的分析为基础,向我们清楚地阐明了经由“一只看不见的手”形成大范围内的有规则的经济空间格局的内在机理,即"从不稳定产生秩序"的基本原理。

Abstract: In the study of the spatial patterning of economy, there was a long tradition according to which the regularity exhibited in the spatial distribution of economic activities was taken for granted.This tradition was evidenced, for example, in the works of von Thunen and those of Christaller and Losch, which lent little insight on how such regularity was evolved.While von Thunen presupposed the existence of an isolated town around which different farming activities took the pattern of concentric rings, Christaller and Losch argued that a hierarchy of central places turned out the outcome of the interaction between individual economic agents who based their location decisions on the trade-off between economies of scale and transportation costs.Admittedly, Central-Place Theory did give an interesting picture of part of the economic landscape.However, its lack of theoretical strength to explain the observed structure in terms of deeper causes made it fall short of a formal economic model.Consequently, research on agglomeration and spatial patterning of economy has long been neglected by mainstream economists just because that they have regarded it as intractable.In 1990s, by applying concepts developed in an interdisciplinary study of self-organizing systems new perspective was introduced into the study of economics, which was elaborated in The Self-Organizing Economy by Paul Krugman.According to Krugman, there is an interdependence between firms in their making of location decision.The desirability of any place as a business location for a firm depends on where the other firms locate in relation to it.Economic activities tend to move from less desirable to more desirable location as time lapses.Krugman proposes that two basic forces exists in the interaction between firms:centripetal force (competition) and centrifugal force (attraction), which correspond to the positive feedback and negative feedback in the study of self-organising systems.On the basis of an analysis of the centripetal and centrifugal forces between firms as well as their interaction, Krugman presented a model of edge city - city of multi-centers, through which he demonstrated the inherent mechanism of the formation of large-scale patterns of regularity in economic space, that is, the principle of order from instability.The dynamic analysis exhibited in Krugman’s Edge City Model holds great potential in the explanation of "circular and cumulative causation" which intrigues both of urban economists and developmental economists.The evolutionary approach to the study of spatial economy makes itself a valuable compliment to those of von Thunen, Christaller and Losch, which are largely static.The concepts of dynamics, self-organizing etc and the evolutionary approach adopted in the establishment of the model lend important theoretical support to the development of the New Economic Geography, which is winning serious attention from the mainstream economists for its extra insight into some common issues encountered in the study of trade theory, the development theory and economic geography.

中图分类号: 

  • F290