地理科学 ›› 2002, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 390-396.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.390

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国西部生态退化的社会经济分析——以川西为例

陈国阶   

  1. 中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 四川 成都 610066
  • 收稿日期:2001-07-05 修回日期:2001-09-28 出版日期:2002-07-20 发布日期:2002-07-20
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院《可持续发展研究中心》第4期特别支持项目"长江上游天然林禁伐和陡坡耕地退耕的影响和区域可持续发展研究"阶段性成果。

A Social and economic analysis of ecological deterioration in the Western China——A case study of West Sichuan

CHEN Guo-jie   

  1. Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610066
  • Received:2001-07-05 Revised:2001-09-28 Online:2002-07-20 Published:2002-07-20

摘要: 导致川西生态退化主要原因是经济发展水平低、人口超过环境容量,农村生产方式和生活方式落后,以柴、粪为薪,天然放牧,陡坡垦殖,砍伐森林等导致植被破坏、草场退化、水土流失。据此,对川西的区域资源优势、川西较低密度人口、川西资源开发和支柱产业选择应重新评价和定位。进行川西生态建设,实施可持续发展战略,必须营造开放的社会-经济-自然复合系统的耗散结构,构造社会、经济发展与生态建设协调的有序结构和机制。同时,较彻底地改造农林牧生态系统,开创与生态协调的农业结构、生产模式、种植模式和管理模式,进行农牧区社区建设,根除刀耕火种、陡坡垦殖、游牧的社会基础。

Abstract: The decision of taking ecological construction as one of important contents and goals in the Western development indicates a great prograss of construction thought in China history. Its signification is not only to give the ecological construction an outstanding strategical position in Western development, but also to emphasize the integration of ecological construction and economic construction. Ecological deterioration in Western China is causative of profound social and economic origin. The author in the paper wants to expound the homology of ecological deterioration and regional poverty, and their alleviation of integration by taking West Sichuan as an example. West Sichuan, which is a part of Qinghai-Xizang(Tibet) Plateau, provides an important ecological defence for the upper reaches of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River. At present, West Sichuan is suffering from ecological deterioration and ecological function weakening. Regional poverty and ecological degradation form a vicious circle. It is also facing a new contradiction and challenges between the demand of ecological construction and the hope of rapid economic development. The main causes of ecological degradation in West Sichuan include low economic development as a result of over-loaded carrying capacity of population; backward mode of production and backward life style in rural area, for instance, using plant and animal manure as fuel, deforestation, cultivated steep land and natural grazing, result in vegetation destruction, grass degradation and soil erosion.We should recognize the facts that obvious resource superiority in West Sichuan did not lead to alleviate its poverty, but to cause serious ecological and environmental degradation because of primitive exploitation for lack of advanced technology. There low density of population did not avoid the tragedy of overload carrying capacity either. We should re-assess and re-fixed the position of regional superiorities of resource and, low density of population and the choice of resource exploitation and pillar industries in West Sichuan must be thought of using advanced technology, getting high benelits and compatible with environment. For implementing ecological construction and the strategy of sustainable development, it is necessary to build an open dissipative structure of social, economic and natural complex system and to found an order structure and mechanism for social and economic development harmonizing with ecological construction. Meantime they should reform profoundly their agro-ecosystem and create or develop new agricultural structures, new modes of production, new planting patterns and manage patterns, re-build rural structure and inhabitant patterns. All efforts are to exclude social foundation of slash-and-burn cultivation, steep land cultivation and nomadic life.

中图分类号: 

  • F062.2