地理科学 ›› 2003, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 136-141.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.136

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

邹衍的地理学说及与《五藏山经》之关系

王乃昂1, 蔡为民2   

  1. 1. 兰州大学地理科学系, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国农业大学资源环境学院, 北京 100081
  • 出版日期:2003-03-20 发布日期:2003-03-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40071031)和国家社会科学基金项目(01BZS017)。

On the Geographical Theory of ZOU Yan and His Contribution to Wu Zang Shan Jing

WANG Nai-Ang1, CAI Wei-Min2   

  1. 1. Deptartment of Geography, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000;
    2. School of Resources and Environment, Chinese Agriculture University, Beijing 100081
  • Online:2003-03-20 Published:2003-03-20

摘要: 邹衍是我国古代最早的地理学家之一。他不仅考察过燕、齐海滨及近海岛屿,而且曾游历诸国,掌握了大量地理资料。根据当时所知的海陆分布,提出了著名的"大九州"学说。邹衍活动时代与《五藏山经》成书时代一致,他一度作为祭酒的稷下学宫是战国时期的文化中心和图书资料中心,为《五藏山经》的编撰提供了来自不同地域的地理资料。《五藏山经》记述方法与邹衍的经验归纳法十分吻合,其主要内容、文字风格与邹衍佚文也颇有相似之处。综合各种因素,可认为《五藏山经》系邹衍学派汇编整理。

Abstract: ZOU Yan(about 343-265 B.C.)was a well-known Chinese ancient philosopher and geographer in the Pre-Qin Period. He established two knowledge systems of history and geography. Along with the development of navigation of Qi State, the geographical knowledge about oversea-lands had grown. From this knowledge, ZOU Yan presented a geographical theory of "Nine Large Lands". He thought that China was only a small part of the world. The large land on which China locates was named Chi Xian Shen Zhou, and it was divided into nine parts, called "Nine Lands". There were nine large lands, each of then was the same large as China. The nine large lands made up a division, and there were nine such divisions in the earth. Hence, according to the views of ZOU Yan, there were 81 large lands altogether in the world. All divisions were surrounded by ocean (Da Ying Hai), and in each division the large lands were separated by sea (Pi Hai). ZOU Yan's theory was advanced in Pre-Qin Period, but it was considered an absurd idea in ancient China. Wu Zang Shan Jing(the Classic of the Mountains) is the most concrete and most elegantly written part of Shan Hai Jing. Even though mixed up with some elements of legend and mythology, it is primarily a regional geographic work that contains much realistic knowledge of the ancient times. Concerning the author of Wu Zang Shan Jing, it may be said as opinions varying, and no unanimous can be draw. Synthesizing the relevant factors, this article pointed out that the Wu Zang Shan Jing was possibly written by ZOU Yan and his followers. The reasons included following sections: 1) The academy of Ji Xia and Qi state, in which ZOU Yan being as a chairman once, was the cultural center of China in the Pre-Qin Period. So there were much geographical data, which was from different regions, it is possible for collecting of the Wu Zang Shan Jing. 2) The writing times and contents of the Wu Zang Shan Jing were identical with the activated times of ZOU Yan and his theory. 3) The describing method of the Wu Zang Shan Jing was coincident with ZOU Yan's empiric induction, and the writing style did not show any differences between the Wu Zang Shan Jing and his left literary works.To sum up, being one of the earliest geographers, ZOU Yan should have taken an important position in the history of ancient geography both in China and in the world.

中图分类号: 

  • K901.9