地理科学 ›› 2003, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 674-679.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.674

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

湿地生态系统的服务功益及可持续利用

张峰1, 周维芝2, 张坤3   

  1. 1. 山西大学黄土高原研究所, 山西 太原 030006;
    2. 山东省环境监测中心站, 山东 济南 250013;
    3. 国家林业局林业经济研究中心, 北京 100714
  • 收稿日期:2002-10-16 修回日期:2003-03-01 出版日期:2003-11-20 发布日期:2003-11-20
  • 基金资助:
    山西省留学基金。

Service Benefits of Wetland Ecosystem and Its Sustainable Utilization

ZHANG Feng1, ZHOU Wei-Zhi2, ZHANG Kun3   

  1. 1. Institute of Loess Plateau, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006;
    2. Environmental Monitoring Center of Shandong Province, Jinan, Shandong 250013;
    3. National Forestry Economics and Development Research Center, Beijing 100714
  • Received:2002-10-16 Revised:2003-03-01 Online:2003-11-20 Published:2003-11-20

摘要: 湿地生态系统作为独特的生态系统类型多样,在地球上广泛分布。湿地生态系统在改善环境、调洪蓄洪、为人类提供各种资源等方面,具有调节气候和水文的生态服务功益、保护水禽迁徙和繁育的生态服务功益、丰富的生物多样性、降解和富集污染物的环境服务功益、物质生产服务功益和旅游服务功益等。鉴于目前湿地生态系统服务功益的片面理解和不合理利用问题,对湿地生态系统服务功益的可持续利用现状进行了分析,提出了湿地生态系统服务功益可持续利用的科学对策,包括全面认识和发挥湿地生态系统的生态和环境服务功益;正确处理直接和间接服务功益的关系,提高湿地生态系统的利用效率;寻求实现湿地生态系统综合经济服务功益的最佳开发模式。

Abstract: Wetland as distinctive ecosystem on the earth is different from the other ecosystems, has various types and is distributed extensively on the earth. It has an important role in improving environment and reducing and harboring flood, moreover, can provide various natural resources for human and protect biodiversity. Wetland ecosystem has various important service benefits as follows: (1) It has the ecological service benefit of modulating climate and water regime; moreover, it is favorable to prevent flooding. (2) It has an important function of providing habit and reproduction place for waterfowls. (3) There are abundant biodiversities, including gene, species and ecosystem diversity. (4) It has capacity to degrade and enrich contaminations and improve environment, such as purifying sewage, and decontaminating heavy metal irons, fixing CO2. (5) It is capable to produce materials for human being, e.g., fishes, timber, foods, medicines, and various raw materials for industry. (6) There are various tourism resources, especially waterfall, fresh spring, diving, surfing and boating. However, there are some unilateral ideas and non-reasonable utilization for wetland, some problems for the sustainable utilization of service benefit of wetland ecosystem is discussed, and the strategies for wetland sustainable utilization are presented, which are (1) comprehensively understanding the ecological and environment service benefits and reasonably using its ecological and environment service benefits, (2) reasonably dealing with the balance relationship between direct and indirect service benefits so as to improve the utilization efficiency of service benefits of wetland ecosystem and (3) seeking optimal developing model for the comprehensive economic service benefits of wetland ecosystem in order to get much more economic benefit, respectively.

中图分类号: 

  • P941.78