地理科学 ›› 2011, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (12): 1512-1517.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1512

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

民族文化重构实践中的身份与地方认同——仡佬族祭祖活动案例

杜芳娟1,2, 陈晓亮2, 朱竑2   

  1. 1. 贵州师范大学中国南方喀斯特研究院, 贵州贵阳550001;
    2. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广东广州510275
  • 收稿日期:2010-12-06 修回日期:2010-12-14 出版日期:1997-12-20 发布日期:1997-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 朱竑, 教授。E-mail:eeszhh@mail.sysu.edu.cn E-mail:eeszhh@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41101135);贵州省教育厅高校人文社科研究项目(09JD007);广东省自然科学基金项目(10251063101000007);教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划项目(NCET-07-0889)资助

Ethnic Identity and Place Identity in the Practice of Ethnic Cultural Reconstruction:A Case Study of Official Ancestor Worship of Gelao Minority in Wuchuan County

DU Fang-juan1,2, CHEN Xiao-liang2, ZHU Hong2   

  1. 1. Institute of South China Karst, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China;
    2. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275, China
  • Received:2010-12-06 Revised:2010-12-14 Online:1997-12-20 Published:1997-12-20

摘要: 在文化转向思潮的引领下,新文化地理学从注重结果向注重过程转移,更强调地理事象所发生的空间过程及其内化在特殊地域系统中的社会关系。在这一过程中,景观的符号象征意义和表征作用得到重新解读。以民族文化为旅游吸引物的发展背景下,通过对贵州世居民族仡佬族官方祭祖活动的参与式观察和相关群体的深度访谈,发现民族精英为将务川树立为仡佬族族群的中心,重构了"九天天主"及其祭祖仪式和场所,地方意义由此发生了改变‘,小塘石笋’由自然景观变为仡佬族族群的文化中心景观。"仡佬之源"的地方中心性空间策略虽扩大了仡佬族的知名度,提升了地方影响力,但祭祀活动却呈现出精英的"台上"认同与民众"台下"认同的对立。这一分歧的根本原因是当地仡佬族模糊的身份记忆以及仡佬族作为散居族群的文化多元性所致。在仡佬族祭祖的文化实践中,精英通过各种社会关系和权力影响和重构了地方身份认同,而地方的民族身份认同又影响地方意义的重构。文章指出,没有民众的"自下而上"支持,悬置于族群之上的官方主导的文化重构实践具有很大的脆弱性。研究对完善地方感研究中主体性缺失及地方与认同研究中身份认同研究不足具有重要的理论意义。

Abstract: With the leading process of the ideological trend of ‘cultural turn’,the main focus of ‘new cultural geography’ has transformed from emphasizing the results of the geographical phenomena to the process,with its spatial process and social relationships which internalized in special regional systems being more emphasized.The meanings and symbolic functions of the landscapes were reinterpreted in this transformation process.Based on the participant observation on the official activities of ancestor worship of Gelao ethnic minority which is one of the native ethnic minorities in Guizhou Province and in-depth interviews with relational groups in Wuchuan County,Guizhou Province,it is found,under the context that the economic development relies on the ethnic culture as the tourism attractions,the ethnic elites reconstructed the Jiutiantianzhu as ancestors of Gelao ethnic minority and the rituals as well as the place of ancestor worship in order to make Wuchuan County become the central place of Gelao minority groups.In the process of reconstruction,the meanings of place have been changed,and the Xiaotangshisun has also been transferred from the original natural landscape into the central cultural landscape of Gelao ethnic minority groups.Although the spatial strategy of the place being centralized as ‘the source of Gelao ethnic group’ enlarges the fame of Wuchuan County and enhances the influence of the area,there is an opposite identity on activities of ancestor worship between official ‘on-stage’ of the ethnic elites and non-official ‘under-stage’ of the common people.The essential reasons for the divarication cover two aspects.One is that the local Gelao people in Wuchuan County have not distinct memory about their ethnic group.The other reason is that the Gelao minority have been scattered so long time that they have already had different culture from place to place.In the process of the cultural practice of ancestor worship of Gelao ethnic minority,the local elites reconstruct the place identity by various kinds of the social relations and powers,meanwhile the local ethnic identity also cause some impacts on the reconstruction of place meanings in another way.It is finally pointed out in the paper that the official cultural reconstruction suspended above ethnic groups would be very fragile without the support coming from the common Gelao people from bottom to up.This study has a great theoretical significance in improving the research on sense of place with the lack of subject,and also in enhancing the study of emphasizing the importance of ethnic identity and place identity.

中图分类号: 

  • K901.6