地理科学 ›› 2012, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 25-30.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.01.25

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乡村劳动力迁移的“双拉力”模型及其就地城镇化效应——基于中国东南沿海三个地区的实证研究

祁新华(), 朱宇(), 周燕萍   

  1. 福建师范大学地理科学学院,福建 福州350007
  • 收稿日期:2011-01-04 修回日期:2011-06-13 出版日期:2012-01-20 发布日期:2012-01-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:祁新华(1974-),男,福建莆田人,副教授,博士,主要从事人居环境科学、人文地理学研究。E-mail: fjqxh74@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金项目(07BRK007)、国家基础科学人才培养基金资助项目(J0830521)、教育部省部共建人文社会科学重点研究基地项目(10JJDZONGHE017)、福建省教育厅A类项目(JA10082)资助

A “Double-Pull” Model of Rural Labor Migration and its In Situ Urbanization Effect: Cases Studies of Three Coastal Areas in Southeast China

Xin-hua QI(), Yu ZHU(), Yan-ping ZHOU   

  1. School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China
  • Received:2011-01-04 Revised:2011-06-13 Online:2012-01-20 Published:2012-01-20

摘要:

针对中国东南沿海部分地区未通过大规模人口迁移而实现转型的就地城镇化现象,选择3个就地城镇化发达地区,在问卷调查数据的支撑下,构建了“乡村拉力—城市拉力”(“双拉力”)概念模型,探讨乡村劳动力迁移行为、迁移意愿及其城镇化效应。结果显示,居民迁移行为不太频繁,且多数为就地就近的近距离迁移;同时迁移意愿不够强烈,并且倾向于近距离的中小城镇。在“双拉力”模型分析框架内,乡村拉力主要表现为就业机会、收入水平(预期收入)、社会保障与乡土情节,城市拉力包括就业机会与收入水平、居住环境、子女教育等,乡村拉力作用强度远大于城市拉力。在这个来源于乡村的动力机制的作用下,当地居民出于个人比较利益最大化的考虑更倾向于选择就地转型,由此导致了与西方传统城市化模式迥异的就地城镇化现象。进一步论证了就地城镇化产生与发展的本地性与客观必然性,深化了对就地城镇化现象微观机制的认识。

关键词: 乡村劳动力, 迁移意愿, 就地城镇化, “双拉力”概念模型, 中国东南沿海地区

Abstract:

Based on cases studies in three coastal areas of Southeast China, this paper proposes a "Double-Pull" conceptual model to examine the migration intention and behaviour of the rural labor force and their urbanization effects in the areas characterized by well developed in situ urbanization and little out-migration, using data from a questionnaire survey. The results show that migration frequency of the respondents was low, and short-distance moves were the dominant form of their mobility. At the same time, they demonstrated low migration intention, and for those who did indicate such intention, they tended to choose nearby middle- and small-towns as the destination. Under the framework of "Double Pull" Conceptual Model, the above migration intention and behaviou were the result of the balance of both the rural and the urban pull forces. The "rural pull forces" included employment opportunities, income, social insurance and the sentimental attachment to hometowns; while the "urban pull forces" included employ opportunities, income, residential environments, children′s education, etc.; and the former was much stronger than the latter. In order to achieve maximum benefits, local people tended to choose rural-urban transformation rather than out-migration, and this led to the phenomenon of in situ urbanization, which is different from the conventional urbanization patterns in the past of developed countries. The paper confirms local nature of the endogenous nature of the emergence and development of in situ urbanization and its inevitability, and contributes to a deeper understanding on the micro mechanism of in situ urbanization.

Key words: rural labor force, migration intention, in situ urbanization, “Double-Pull” conceptual model, Coastal areas of Southeast China

中图分类号: 

  • F291.1