地理科学 ›› 2012, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (11): 6901391-6901396.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.011.1391

• • 上一篇    

黄土坡面不同植被恢复阶段的减流减沙效益研究

徐佳1,2(), 刘普灵1,2(), 邓瑞芬3, 刘栋3   

  1. 1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100
    2.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100
    3.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-20 修回日期:2012-02-11 出版日期:2012-11-20 发布日期:2012-11-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:徐 佳 (1984-),女,陕西韩城人,博士研究生,主要从事水土保持效益和土壤侵蚀研究。E-mail: xvjia0124@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划课题(2011BAD31B01)资助

Runoff and Sediment Reductions in the Different Stages of Vegetation Restoration on a Loess Slope

Jia XU1,2(), Pu-ling LIU1,2(), Rui-fen DENG3, Dong LIU3   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loss Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
    2. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
    3. College of Rsources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
  • Received:2011-11-20 Revised:2012-02-11 Online:2012-11-20 Published:2012-11-20

摘要:

在延安燕沟流域退耕黄土坡面,根据植被状况建立不同植被恢复阶段(耕地、草地、灌木地、林地)径流小区,分析在退耕还林(草)工程实施以后,不同植被恢复阶段的减流减沙效益。结果表明,与坡耕地相比,各小区的减流减沙效益为:林地>灌木地>草地,草地和灌木地的减沙效益大于减流效益。对比草地和灌木地刈割前后的产流产沙量,可以看出,草地和灌木的减流效益有80%以上是由于地表枯落物及根系拦蓄径流造成,刈割后产沙量有明显增加,表明处于植被演替初级阶段的近地表层生态功能仍然比较脆弱,仍需进行封育保护。

关键词: 植被恢复阶段, 减流效益, 减沙效益, 刈割处理

Abstract:

Vegetation coverage can effectively protect soils from erosion by intercepting raindrop impact and retaining runoff. In the loess hilly region of China, vegetation status has been improved since the “Grain for Green” project was launched and as a result, grassland, shrub land, and forestland get greatly increased. Study of the effects of the different restoration stages on runoff and sediment reductions may provide a sound basis for evaluating the environmental effects of vegetation restoration. Natural rainfall is difficult to manipulate and consequently, and soil erosion patterns on slope with different ways of vegetation coverage under natural rainfall condition have not been examined well. Runoff plots integrating different stages of vegetation restoration, including farmland, grassland, shrub land, and forestland were set up on the loess slope of Yangou catchment in Yan’an where the “Grain for Green” project was practiced to examine the runoff and sediment reductions in the different stages of vegetation restoration under natural rainfall condition. The investigation of the accumulative runoff and sediment yields from 2004 to 2008 showed that the runoff and sediment reductions ranked in the order of forestland>shrub land>grassland>farmland. Runoff reduction for forestland was the highest, being only about 10% of runoff from farmland. This implies that farmland was the major sources of soil erosion and sediment. The spatial structure and ground litters on forestland were capable of retaining runoff and thus promoting rainfall infiltration into soil. Sediment yields on grassland, shrub land, and forestland decreased by more than 90% compared with that on farmland in all the years but 2006, in which rainfall was lower. Thus, all the three stages of vegetation restoration had significant sediment reducing effects. On grassland and shrub land, sediment reductions were higher than runoff reductions. Comparison of the runoff and sediment yields on grassland and shrub land before and after vegetation cutting showed that more than 80% of the runoff reductions on grassland and shrub land were attributed to retaining by ground litters on and roots in them. Vegetation removed shrub land had stronger soil anti-erodibility than vegetation removed grassland and sediment yields on the lands increased slightly after vegetation cutting. After vegetation cutting on grassland and shrub land, the remaining roots and ground litters still had considerable soil conserving effects. However, the sediment yields on grassland and shrub land after vegetation cutting increasing indicated that during the initial vegetation succession, the layer near ground surface was still weak in ecological function and needed protecting by closed tendering.

Key words: Restoration stage, Runoff reduction, Sediment reduction, Vegetation cutting treatment

中图分类号: 

  • S157.2