地理科学 ›› 2012, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (5): 530-535.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.530

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基于局部空间统计的产业集群空间分析——以北京市制造业集群为例

刘霄泉(), 孙铁山, 李国平()   

  1. 北京大学政府管理学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-19 修回日期:2012-03-19 出版日期:2012-05-20 发布日期:2012-05-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘霄泉(1982-),女,陕西西安人,博士后,主要从事人文地理、历史地理、城市与区域发展研究。E-mail:ifcold@hotmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    教育部社科青年基金项目(12YJC790124)、国家社科基金重大项目(10zd&022)、国家自然科学基金项目(41001069)资助

Spatial Analysis of Industry Clusters Based on Local Spatial Statistics:A Case Study of Beijing’s Manufacturing Industry Clusters

Xiao-quan LIU(), Tie-shan SUN, Guo-ping LI()   

  1. School of Government of Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2011-07-19 Revised:2012-03-19 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2012-05-20

摘要:

将集群识别与空间分析相结合,通过全国集群模板识别产业集群,进而利用局部空间统计方法,探测产业集群的空间布局特征。利用2008年北京市和全国经济普查数据,从产业联系的角度识别了北京市制造业集群,在此基础上进一步测度了北京市制造业集群的空间分布现状与布局特征。研究发现,北京市制造业集群主要分布在近郊区并向远郊区延伸,资源条件、政策环境、交通区位、历史因素等多种区位因子均对集群的区位选择产生影响。从总体分布来看,北京市制造业集群的空间布局存在分布比较分散、功能重叠或与区县功能定位不符等问题。未来在政策制定时,应进一步强化北京市制造业集群的空间集聚,发挥区域产业政策的引导作用,并不断依托产业园区优化集群发展环境,引导符合区县功能定位的制造业集群发展。

关键词: 产业集群, 空间分析, 局部空间统计, 北京市

Abstract:

Incorporating local spatial autocorrelation analysis into the identification of regional industry clusters, this article presents a useful method for regional industry cluster analysis, which can clearly identify the spatial distribution patterns of regional industry clusters. We use the national benchmark industrial clusters as the template, and apply local spatial autocorrelation analysis based on the local Getis and Ord G statistic to analyze the spatial distributions of manufacturing clusters in Beijing. Our data are drawn from the Beijing Economic Census and the National Economic Census in 2008. We find out that the manufacturing clusters of Beijing are mainly located in the suburban areas, and new investment and development areas are the main locations attracting the manufacturing industries to concentrate and form industry clusters. Through analyzing the spatial patterns of Beijing’s manufacturing clusters, we find out that 1) historical path-dependency, natural resources conditions, transportation accessibility, regional policies and so on are the factors driving the formation of manufacturing clusters in Beijing’s suburbs; 2) manufacturing clusters related with industrial linkages are often located near to each other; 3) manufacturing clusters are scattered throughout the suburbs in Beijing, and different clusters have various location patterns; and 4) the functional divisions of industry sectors within the cluster over space are not distinct, and many clusters are duplicated in industry components at different locations, which leads to the overlap of functional divisions of areas. Therefore we suggest to further improve the agglomeration of manufacturing clusters in Beijing, to clearly indentify the regional functions and to guide manufacturing clusters through proper regional policies, so as to enhance the regional divisions and specializations of manufacturing clusters based on the regional functions and specialty.

Key words: industry clusters, spatial analysis, local spatial statistics, Beijing

中图分类号: 

  • K902