地理科学 ›› 2012, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (8): 971-978.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.08.971

• • 上一篇    下一篇

汉江上游白河段万年尺度洪水水文学研究

李晓刚(), 黄春长(), 庞奖励, 查小春, 周亚利, 王恒松   

  1. 陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院,陕西 西安 710062
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-11 修回日期:2011-10-08 出版日期:2012-08-20 发布日期:2012-05-29
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李晓刚(1983-), 男, 山西吕梁人, 博士研究生, 主要研究方向为环境变迁。E-mail:sxlixiaogang@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然基金重点项目(41030637)、国家社科基金重点项目(11AZS009)、教育部博士点基金优先发展领域项目(20110202130002)、陕西省教育厅科学研究项目(12JK0486)和陕西省软科学研究计划项目(2012KRM119)资助

Palaeoflood Hydrological Study in the Baihe Reach in the Upper Reaches of the Hanjiang River

Xiao-gang LI(), Chun-chang HUANG(), Jiang-li PANG, Xiao-chun ZHA, Ya-li ZHOU, Heng-song WANG   

  1. College of Tourism and Environmental Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi′an, Shananxi 710062, China
  • Received:2011-07-11 Revised:2011-10-08 Online:2012-08-20 Published:2012-05-29

摘要:

通过对汉江上游的考察,在多个地点发现古洪水滞流沉积层夹在古土壤层与坡积石渣土层或坡积角砾层中。选择白河段JJTZ剖面进行沉积学和水文学研究。对于采集的全新世古洪水滞流沉积样品,进行沉积学分析,与2010年现代洪水滞流沉积物进行对比,结合其宏观特征确认其为汉江洪水悬移质沉积物,粒度成分分类为细沙质粉沙。它们记录了汉江上游特大古洪水事件。通过地层学对比分析和OSL测年断代,确定其发生在全新世中期–晚期转折阶段,即3 200~2 800 a B.P.。利用沉积学和古水文学原理恢复古洪水洪峰水位,采用比降法计算出两次古洪水洪峰流量为40 180 m3/s和49 170 m3/s。该结果大大延长了洪水水文数据序列,从而能够建立汉江上游万年尺度洪水流量–频率关系,对于揭示汉江上游水文过程对于全球变化的响应规律具有重要的科学意义,对于防洪减灾和水资源水能源工程建设具有重要的现实意义。

关键词: 古洪水, 滞流沉积物, 万年尺度, 全新世, 汉江

Abstract:

Palaeoflood hydrological studies were carried out in the upper reaches of the Hanjiang River. Palaeoflood slackwater deposit was found at the JJTZ site in the Baihe reach in the bedrock gorges. Analysis of the grain-size distribution indicates that these SWD consist of sandy silt, sourced from the suspended sediment load of the floodwater. Stratigraphic correlation with the chronological framework established in the Weihe River basin OSL dating show that these extreme floods occurred at the turn from middle to late Holocene, about 3200-2800 a B.P. at the end of the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. The reconstructed peak discharges of the palaeoflood range from 40 180 m3/s to 49 170 m3/s, which are much larger than the gauged largest floods. These results were further tested and proved to be reliable with reconstruction of the modern floods at the same reach with the same method. This research is of great importance in hydrological engineering and flood mitigation. And it is also very important in establishment of the relationships between extreme flood events and global climate change.

Key words: palaeoflood, slackwater deposit, Holocene, 10000-year time-scale, Hanjiang River

中图分类号: 

  • P539.6