地理科学 ›› 2013, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 167-173.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2013.02.167

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地形和气候对中国山地森林带界线的影响

孙然好1(), 张百平2   

  1. 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室,北京,100085
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京,100101
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-09 修回日期:2012-06-18 出版日期:2013-02-20 发布日期:2013-02-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:孙然好 (1981-), 男, 山东临沂人, 博士, 助理研究员, 主要从事景观规划与空间模型研究。E-mail: rhsun@rcees.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41001111;41030528)资助

Effect of Regional Topographic and Climatic Factors on Limits of Altitudinal Forest Belts

Ran-hao SUN1(), Bai-ping ZHANG2   

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Urban and Rigional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
    2.State Key Laboratory of Resource and Environment Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2012-01-09 Revised:2012-06-18 Online:2013-02-20 Published:2013-02-20

摘要:

山地森林带界线对地形差异和气候变化敏感,是地学、生态学研究的重要内容。利用13个气候指标进行主成分分析,提取出中国31个自然地带的气候指数,包括夏季温度变异指数(STVI)、冬季温度变异指数(WTVI)和干旱指数(DI),3个气候指数符合地带性分布规律,STVI从南向北递减,WTVI以东部地区和南疆部分地区最高,DI则从东南向西北递增。基于文献发表的中国28个典型山体的森林带界线数据,将其与山体基面高度、山体相对高度和地带性气候指数进行多元回归分析。结果显示,山体基面高度对森林带下线南北坡差异贡献最大(39.67%),山体相对高度对森林带上线南北坡差异贡献最大(39.34%)。3个地带性气候指数的累积贡献对森林带上线南北差异、下线南北差异和带宽南北差异的影响差别不大,在51.4%~55.9%之间,其中STVI贡献最大,其次是WTVI和DI。通过定量揭示地形和气候要素对山地森林带界线差异的贡献,可以为区域或全球尺度的山地森林带界线评价和模拟提供参考。

关键词: 山地垂直带, 森林带, 地形效应, 基带

Abstract:

The division of vegetation zones is an old and highly emphasized topic in both botany and geography. High mountains are characterized by different vegetation types at different elevations. Altitudinal vegetation belts are bounded by relatively narrow boundaries. Investigation and identification of altitudinal vegetation belts is significant in ecological and geographical studies due to extremely complex environment and diverse vegetation types in mountains. Altitudinal forest belts (AFBs) are significantly impacted by topographic and climatic factors. The climatic data used in this study were obtained from Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) between 1960 and 2000. After analyzing the significance of the 13 climatic factors in 31 base belts, we obtained three dominant principal components (PCs) designated as temperature variation index in winter (WTVI), temperature variation index in summer (STVI), and drought index (DI). WTVI decreased from South to North China, whereas STVI was high in South China and Tibetan Plateau. DI increased from the southwest to the northwest of China. Next, 28 AFB data were collected from published references. Multivariate regression analysis was used to quantify the relationship between AFB characteristics and topographic and climatic PCs. Results show that the base elevation of a mountain has the significant contribution to lower limits of AFBs (39.67%), whereas the relative elevation of a mountain has the significant contribution to upper limits of AFBs (39.34%). The climatic factors have similar contributions to variations in upper limits, lower limits, and width of AFBs. Among the three climatic PCs, STVI has the most contribution to variations of AFBs, followed by WTVI and DI. This paper quantifies the relative contributions of topographic and climatic factors to variations in AFBs at regional scales, and could potentially be used to evaluate and model the AFB distributions in other mountainous regions at regional or global scales.

Key words: mountain altitudinal belt, altitudinal forest belt, topographic effect, base belt

中图分类号: 

  • P9