地理科学 ›› 2013, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 609-612.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2013.05.609

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青海湖小冰期降水量估算

杨萍1,2(), 王乃昂2, 黄银洲2, 董春雨2, 朵海瑞3, 鄂崇毅1   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学生命与地理科学学院, 青海 西宁 8100081
    2. 兰州大学资源环境学院, 甘肃 兰州 730000
    3. 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 10008
  • 收稿日期:2012-07-02 修回日期:2012-09-10 出版日期:2013-05-20 发布日期:2013-05-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨 萍(1972-),女,河南南阳人,副教授,博士,主要从事环境变化、GIS应用研究。E-mail:ypycx@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31060065,41161058)、教育部“春晖计划”合作科研项目(Z2011023,S2011008) 、青海师范大学创新项目(1294)资助

Calculation of Precipitation of Qinghai Lake During Little Ice Age Based on GIS

Ping YANG1,2(), Nai-ang WANG2, Yin-zhou HUANG1, Chun-yu DONG2, Hai-rui DUO3, Chong-yi E1   

  1. 1. College of Life and Geography Sciences, Qinghai Normal University, Qinghai, Xining 810008,China
    2. College of Resources and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou ,Gansu 730000,China
    3. School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 10008,China
  • Received:2012-07-02 Revised:2012-09-10 Online:2013-05-20 Published:2013-05-20

摘要:

通过对处于构造活动相对稳定的青海湖湖滨地带湖岸堤的野外考察,获取了海晏湾和哈达湾两处湖岸堤的14C年龄;在地理信息系统的支持下,得到这两处岸堤的海拔高度和湖泊面积,应用水热平衡模型,估算了当时流域的降水量。200 a B.P.的青海湖湖岸堤海拔高度为3 201 m,湖泊面积为4 870 km2,流域降水量为416 mm,表明青海湖该时段小冰期气候具有比现在湿润的特征,同时,降水量估算的结果也支持了青海湖流域气候受亚洲西南季风影响的观点。

关键词: 青海湖, 水热平衡模型, 小冰期, 降水量

Abstract: Abstact: Inland lakes are recorders of the past climate change and indicators of the modern environmental change. Qinghai Lake, the largest inland salt lake in China, locats in the northeast of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and semi-arid region where is under the influence of westerly and Asia Monsoon, is sensitive to climate change. Evidences such as lake shorelines changing can be used to study the fluctuation of lake level in this basin. These can reflect water mass balance of a basin and are closely related with climate parameters of precipitation, temperature, evaporation, humidity, wind, etc. A lake shoreline during the Little Ice Age is obtained by field investigation and geomorphologic analysis and its age is obtained by 14C dating and precipitation during this time is calculated using hydrological and energy budget model and the methodology of meteorology, hydrology and other software such as GIS. The 14C dating of the bird bones at 3 201 m in Haiyanwan is 200 a B.P. and the 14C dating of the deadwood at 3 201m in a lake shoreline in Hadawan is 195 a B.P. So the area of Qinghai Lake and precipitation can be estimated by the proof coming from the level and age of the lake shoreline in Haiyanwan and Hadawan based on GIS. The lake level and area are 3 201 m and 4 870 km2 in 200 a B.P. respectively, which are 8 m higher and 636 km2 bigger than those of today, and the precipitation in that time is 416 mm, which is 9% higher than that of today. This result is consistent with the opinion that the climate during Little Ice Age in Qinghai Lake is humid, which has been obtained by relative research and supports the viewpoint that climate in Qinghai Lake may have been influenced by southwest Asian monsoon, which is stronger but the eastern Asian monsoon is weaker during the middle and late period of the Little Ice Age.

Key words: Qinghai Lake, hydrological and energy budget model, Little Ice Age, precipitation

中图分类号: 

  • P426