地理科学 ›› 2013, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (9): 1111-1116.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2013.09.1111

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基于氮磷输出风险控制的小流域土地利用结构优化研究

于兴修1(), 李建华1,2, 刘前进1, 吴元芝1, 孙棋棋1,2, 高燕1,2   

  1. 1.临沂大学水土保持与环境保育研究所 山东省水土保持与环境保育重点实验室, 山东 临沂 276005
    2.山东师范大学人口资源与环境学院, 山东 济南 250014
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-18 修回日期:2013-02-11 出版日期:2013-09-30 发布日期:2016-05-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:于兴修(1967-),男,山东莒县人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事资源利用与环境效应研究。E-mail:yuxingxiu@lyu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41101263)、临沂市重大科技创新项目(201011019)、山东省科技攻关项目(2011GGH21704)资助

Land Use Structure Optimization Research Based on Nitrogenand Phosphorus Output Risky Control in Small Watershed

Xing-xiu YU1(), Jian-hua LI1,2, Qian-jin LIU1, Yuan-zhi WU1, Qi-qi SUN1,2, Yan GAO1,2   

  1. 1. Shandong Provincial Key laboratory of Water and Soil Conservation & Environmental Protection, Institute of Water and Soil Conservation & Environmental Protection, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005, China
    2. College of Population, Resources and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250014, China
  • Received:2012-12-18 Revised:2013-02-11 Online:2013-09-30 Published:2016-05-28

摘要:

以沂蒙山区典型小流域——双河峪小流域为研究对象,将线性规划模型与GIS有效耦合,以控制N、P等面源污染物输出与增加经济效益作为土地利用优化配置首要目标,以地块为单元对研究区土地利用结构进行优化配置。结果表明:线性规划模型与GIS有效结合,使土地利用优化配置结果既具有面积上的约束,又同时与具体的空间位置相匹配;将N、P等面源污染物输出纳入土地利用优化配置所考虑的因素当中,使配置结果兼顾经济与环境效益的统一;双河峪小流域优化方案提高园地与林地面积,降低了耕地与未利用地面积比重,N、P年输出量降低15.3%,年经济效益提高41%。

关键词: 沂蒙山区, 氮磷输出, 土地利用, 线性规划, GIS

Abstract:

Taking Shuangheyu small watershed, the typical small watershed of the Yimeng mountainous area, as the object of study, the optimal allocation of land use structure in the study area was carried out based on the unit of land patches. Taking the control of the output of agricultural non-point source pollution (Nitrogen and Phosphorus, etc) into consideration, the optimal allocation of land use recognized the increase of economical and environmental benefit as the primary goal. The data was obtained using field in-situ observations district and Real-Time Kinematics(RTK)field measurement device. Land suitability evaluation was carried out through combination of the single-factor evaluation and the comprehensive evaluation method. The optimal allocation of land use structure was carried out through the method of effective coupling of linear programming model with dominant optimization analysis capabilities and GIS equipped with powerful spatial configuration function. The results showed that: the very combining of linear programming model and GIS not only provided the optimal allocation of land use with sound constraint effect in terms of area, but also matched the configuration information with specific spatial location at the same time, which enhanced the scientificalness and visuality of the optimal results. As taking account of the output of N, P non-point source pollutant into the factors considered by the optimal allocation of land use, the configuration results realized the goal of unifying the economic and environmental benefits through establishing multi-objective linear programming model of minimizing output of the non-point source pollution and maximizing the economic effectiveness. The optimization scheme of the Shuangheyu small watershed increased the area of orchard and forest land by 52.3% and 820%, respectively; and reduced the proportion of the area of farmland (cultivated land) by 38.3% and wasteland by 89.3%. The total N and P annual output was reduced by 15.3% and the annual economic efficiency was improved by 41%, among which the orchard, with its overwhelmingly superior area, made the most significant contribution to the increase of economic benefits in the optimization scheme. Land suitability evaluation was conducted through combination of the single-factor evaluation and the comprehensive evaluation method, which was applied in meso and micro-scale systems and made up for the deficiency of a linear programming model. It was turned out that the method was easy to operate and had good availability of data, which guaranteed the reliability of the configuration result. The orchard, with high economic effectiveness, comparatively lower N、P output risk and good flexibility in spatial configuration, was main factor influencing the land use optimal allocation, which should be put priority in optimization scheme. This study could provide scientific evidence for the rational utilization of land resources and lay the foundation for ecological construction of the Yimeng mountainous area.

Key words: the Yimeng mountainous areas, output N and P, landuse, linear programming model, GIS

中图分类号: 

  • X506/X522