地理科学 ›› 2014, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (6): 733-739.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.06.733

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基于最小阻力模型的土地整治中生态连通性变化及其优化研究

李谦1,2(), 戴靓1,3, 朱青1(), 杨桂山1, 吴绍华3   

  1. 1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,流域地理学重点实验室,江苏 南京 210008
    2.中国科学院大学,北京,100049
    3.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,江苏 南京 210046
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-14 修回日期:2013-11-05 出版日期:2014-06-20 发布日期:2014-06-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李谦(1982-),男,江苏涟水人,博士研究生,主要从事土地利用生态环境效应及GIS应用研究。E-mail:liqian_nj@hotmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41030745,41271109)、中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所“一三五”重点项目(NIGLAS2012135005)及领域前沿项目(NIGLAS2011YJ01)资助

Ecological Connectivity Changes and Its Pattern Optimization During Land Consolidation Based on Minimal Accumulative Resistance Model

Qian LI1,2(), Liang DAI1,3, Qing ZHU1(), Gui-shan YANG1, Shao-hua WU3   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing,Jiangsu 210008, China
    2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3.School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2013-07-14 Revised:2013-11-05 Online:2014-06-20 Published:2014-06-10

摘要:

以南京市高淳区东坝镇土地整治项目为实验区,基于格局-过程-效应的视角,运用最小累积阻力模型分析土地整治对生态连通性的影响及生态格局优化途径。结果显示:① 从景观格局看,土地整治后生态景观破碎度降低,集聚度上升,较整治前更规整,但景观优势、空间连接度和多样性指数下降,不利于整个生态系统的自组织能力与可持续发展;② 从景观过程看,土地整治后原有的生态廊道被侵占和阻断,景观生态服务功能和强度均弱化。③ 从景观效应看,土地整治后生态功能连通性降低,生态流阻隔,形成明显的3个“生态孤岛”。因此,研究区在整治过程中需注意保护东-西方向生态流迁移关键通道和南-北方向、西南-东北方向辅助通道的畅通,努力优化整治区生态格局。

关键词: 土地整治, 生态用地, 连通性, 最小累积阻力模型, 格局优化

Abstract:

China has witnessed an explosive rise in the demand for construction lands in recent decades in conjunction with its rapid urbanization and industrialization.This intensifies the contradictions between construction land expansion and arable land protection. Fortunately,land consolidation has been proposed and carried out since 1990s, which made the aforementioned situation better. Meanwhile, it seems to yield many new issues on ecology which might be side-effect.As it is accepted that land consolidation is an artificial transformation of land ecological system, which can not only change the composition and structure of ecological land, but deeply affect the material cycling, energy flow and ecological process of landscape elements.Therefore, itchanges the connectivity and function of ecological land. From the perspective of pattern-process-effect, a case study of land consolidation project in Dongba Town, Gaochun District,Nanjing was analyzed for the impact of land consolidation on ecological connectivity and its pattern optimization based on the minimum cumulative resistance model which would be called MCR model hereafter. Whereas attempts for MCR model has been made for many realms such as ecological security assessment, urban growth boundary definition, landscape pattern optimization, etc., few such spatially explicit MCR model for land consolidation impact has been devised. The analysis might provide an alternative and quantitative perspective of this field and subsequently deepen understanding of the fact that in which way and to which extent land consolidation alters the ecological connectivity. The results showed that: 1) With regards to landscape pattern, the ecological landscape fragmentation decreased from 1.32 to 1.19 while the aggregation index increased from 97.78 to 98.13 during land consolidation. This suggests that more regular ecological patches. However, the landscape dominance index, space connectivity and diversity index declined, which could indicate unfavorable impact on the ability of self-organization and sustainable development of the whole ecosystem. 2) With regards to landscape process, the original ecological corridors were occupied and blocked after land consolidation landscape, making the ecological service function and service strength weakened. It was mainly attributed to the losses of pit-ponds as well as canals which were crucial channels for energy flow, material cycling and exchange. 3) With regards to landscape effect, ecological functional connectivity reduced after land consolidation as the mean of regional resistance value ascended from 498.16 to 761.35 and the maximum increased from 7389.21 to 8987.28. A threshold value of 927 according to the natural break point was employed to pick out the hotspots of connectivity reduction area. As a consequence, it is salient to see the formation of three "ecological islands", more explicitly indicating where the ecological flow was blocked much. Therefore, much more attention should be paid to protect the key channel and auxiliary channels for ecological flow to optimize the ecological pattern.

Key words: land consolidation, ecological land, connectivity, minimal accumulative resistance model, pattern optimization

中图分类号: 

  • F301.2