地理科学 ›› 2014, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (7): 831-839.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.07.831

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中、日都市旅游街区书法景观空间分异及其文化认同比较研究

张捷1(), 卢韶婧1(), 杜国庆2, 孙景荣1, 万基财1   

  1. 1.南京大学国土资源与旅游学系,江苏 南京 210093
    2.日本立教大学观光学部,日本 东京 3528558
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-15 修回日期:2013-09-25 出版日期:2014-07-10 发布日期:2014-07-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张 捷(1960-),男,江苏泰兴人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事旅游地理、书法景观和喀斯特研究。E-mail: jiezhang@nju.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(40871072)资助

On Spatial Differentiation and Related Cultural Identity of Calligraphic Landscapes in Tourist Districts: A Comparative Study between China and Japan

Jie ZHANG1(), Shao-jing LU1(), Guo-qing DU2, Jing-rong SUN1, Ji-cai WAN1   

  1. 1.Department of Land Resources and Tourism Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093, China
    2. Department of Tourism, Rikkyo University, Tokyo
  • Received:2013-01-15 Revised:2013-09-25 Online:2014-07-10 Published:2014-07-10

摘要:

以中国和日本两国都市旅游街区的商店招牌为研究对象,以北京琉璃厂、东京浅草寺作为传统旅游街区,以北京王府井、东京新宿作为更新型旅游街区,以南京新街口、东京银座作为都市现代商贸旅游街区,设计了特定的书法景观指数从不同空间尺度探讨了两国书法景观空间分异特征及文化认同的异同。结果表明:全球化背景下中、日两国对书法文化仍然存在的较强文化认同,书法景观作为一种文化符号,标识了城市内部象征空间的形成,表征着全球化背景下的社会与文化过程。虽然两国文字、民俗和书法传统的差异性导致两国在书法艺术的认同角度和形式上的差异,但两国书法景观在整体上具有城市空间分异规律和文化认同的一致性:在全球化的背景下,现代旅游街区的书法景观较之传统旅游街区已经弱化;书法景观在不同类型业态之间的差异则揭示了这种空间分异的形成机制。

关键词: 书法景观, 空间分异, 文化认同, 旅游街区, 全球化

Abstract:

As the most distinctive cultural symbols, the art of calligraphy is endowed with a rich cultural connotation. On one hand, it performances the origin function of identification, and on the other hand, it constructs a meaningful world based on collective memory and identity. China and Japan have the similar cultural traditions of calligraphy. Meanwhile, calligraphic landscape is a crucial component of urban cultural landscapes and an important representative for both counties. Calligraphic landscape is a portion of a geographical space that has a specific visual characteristic and a special sense of the place resulting from the lay-out of calligraphy characters as landscape elements. As one kind of calligraphic landscape, shop signs of different tourist districts are taken into the statistic and analysis process. Selecting Liulichang of China and Sensoji Temple of Japan as traditional tourist districts, Wangfujing of China and Shinjuku of Japan as renewal tourist districts, Xinjiekou of China and Ginza District of Japan as modern tourist districts, this article examined the similarities and differences of spatial differentiation of calligraphic landscapes of two countries from multi spatial scales, by employing specific calligraphic landscape index which indicates more traditional calligraphic signs with a higher value and more non-traditional or western signs with a lower value. The findings indicate that for literal, folk and calligraphic traditional discrepancy between China and Japan, some differences derived from calligraphic landscapes exist mainly in the ways of writing forms and normal authenticity of calligraphic landscapes, characteristics of cultural penetration and fusion, and the identity to the artistic and social status of calligraphers. However, the consistence manifests in the ways of spatial differentiation of urban calligraphic landscapes and cultural identity of two countries on the whole. From macroscopic perspective, in the context of globalization, both China and Japan are affected by the westernization, foreign cultural invasion and urban renewal processing, as a result of which, quantities of western characters appear in the shop signs of the modern tourist districts while renewal tourist districts show the similar characteristics. It reflects the broad impact of modern globalization. From meso-perspective, both two countries have the same spatial differentiation characteristics of calligraphic landscapes among different types of tourist districts: the traditional tourist districts have higher calligraphic landscape indices than the renewal tourist districts, and the modern ones have the lowest calligraphic landscape indices. And from microscopic perspective, both two countries have also the same differentiation characteristics of calligraphic landscapes among different formats: the formats with traditional characteristics have higher calligraphic landscape indices than modern ones, which is explained based on the process of symbolization of culture of the merchandise driven by symbolic consumption after the rise of post-modernism. On all the three types of urban tourist districts, many traditional calligraphic signs are preserved as important tourist attractions, which can lead to the conclusion that strong cultural identity still exists in both China and Japan under the influence of globalization.

Key words: calligraphic landscapes, spatial differentiation, cultural identity, tourist district, globalization

中图分类号: 

  • K901