地理科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (10): 1272-1279.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.010.1272

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农村居民点功能演变的微尺度分析——山东省沂水县核桃园村的实证

张佰林1,2(),张凤荣1(),周建1,曲衍波3   

  1. 1.中国农业大学资源与环境学院,北京 100193
    2.天津工业大学管理学院, 天津 300387
    3.山东财经大学公共管理学院,山东 济南 250014
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-08 出版日期:2015-10-20 发布日期:2015-10-20
  • 作者简介:张佰林(1987-),男,山东沂水人,博士,研究方向为土地整理与可持续利用。E-mail:zhangbailin135@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271111,41301616);山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2013DQ003)

Functional Evolution of Rural Settlement Based on Micro-perspective: A Case Study of Hetaoyuan Village in Yishui County, Shandong Province

Bai-lin ZHANG1,2(),Feng-rong ZHANG1(),Jian ZHOU1,Yan-bo QU3   

  1. 1. School of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    2. School of Management, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, China
    3. School of Public Management, Shandong University of Finance and Economic, Jinan, Shangdong 250014, China
  • Received:2014-04-08 Online:2015-10-20 Published:2015-10-20

摘要:

从微尺度考察农村居民点演变为解决当前农村发展中出现的问题提供了重要视角。构建农村居民点功能演变的分析框架,采用参与式农村评估(PRA)、GIS与遥感影像相结合方法,以山东省沂水县核桃园村为例进行实证。结果表明,农业生产功能一直是农村居民点生产功能的主导,但不同阶段有不同的内容。农业生计主导阶段(1949~1977年),农户以种植业为主要生计来源,利用庭院及房前屋后种植蔬菜;生计多样化阶段(1978~1999年),农户生计策略演变为种植、养殖和外出务工相结合,农户在宅基地内修建猪圈养猪,在庭院内散养家禽;生计非农转化阶段(2000~2012年),农户以种植和外出务工相结合为生计策略,将庭院硬化用来晾晒粮食、猪圈改造为储物间存放粮食和农机具。农村居民点用地一直以宅基地为主导,缺乏非农生产用地;随着生计成果的逐渐丰富,农户对农村居民点生活功能追求不断强化,表现在对住宅建筑材料的优化、居住空间的扩展及旧住宅的翻新。农村居民点内部土地利用结构及其功能承载状况是与农户生计需求相适应的,农村居民点整理应充分尊重这一客观事实。

关键词: 农村居民点, 生计, 生活功能, 农业生产功能, 非农生产功能, 核桃园村

Abstract:

The research of the evolution of rural settlement function plays an important role in solving the problems of rural development. With the rapid development of social economy, functions of rural settlement have tended to variety. However, there are few studies of evaluation of rural settlement functions and its driving factors. Based on the remote sensing and GIS technology, this article takes Hetaoyuan village in Yimeng Mountains as an example, and explore an analysis frame work of the evolution of rural settlement functions to study the evolution of rural s ettlement functions through farmers’ livelihoods and inner structure of rural settlements with participatory rural appraisal (PRA). In this study, three functions (daily life function, agricultural productive function and non-agricultural productive function ) are recognized according to actual conditions in Hetaoyuan village. The data employed in this article was collected by household investigation and authoritative interview in 2013. The results are shown as follows. 1) According to the phase characteristics of farmers’ livelihood strategies, the evolution of rural settlement functions in Hetaoyuan village can be divided into three phases, agricultural production-oriented phase (I, 1949-1977), phase of diverse livelihood activities (II, 1978-1999), non-agricultural productive transformed phase (III, 2000-2012). 2) As time goes, livelihood strategies of rural households transformed from farming to farming, livestock breeding and cross-regional non-agricultural employment, and then turned to farming and cross-regional non-agricultural employment. Agricultural production is consistently dominant production function of rural settlement. Courtyard of rural households is used for vegetable planting in phase I, and livestock breeding in phase II, and grain drying and storage in phase III. Overall, there was a lack of land for non-agricultural production in rural settlement. 3) With the achievements of livelihoods, to pursue daily life function of rural settlement is increasing. It can be reflected from the optimized of residential building materials, the extension of daily life space and the renovation of old houses. 4) Currently, farming and cross-regional non-agricultural employment are the main livelihood strategies of rural households. Courtyard of rural households is used for grain drying, and storage room is used to store grain and agricultural implements. That is, agricultural production and life function of rural settlement are very compatible. It is scientific and reasonable to implement rural residential consolidation by considering the multi-function and structure of rural settlements. 5) The idle houses in Hetaoyuan village are caused by young labor force’s seasonal flow between urban and rural areas, and daily life function of these houses exit. Owing to lacking incremental indicators of homesteads, the idled and abandoned homesteads have potentialities in daily life function of rural settlements, which can be the sources of rural reconstruction.

Key words: rural settlement, livelihood, daily life function, agricultural productive function, non-agricultural productive function, Hetaoyuan village