地理科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (11): 1419-1428.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1419

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古镇旅游地废弃物的环境影响研究——以不同生命周期阶段周庄、锦溪、千灯为例

张宏1,2(), 侯国林1,3(), 黄震方1, 方叶林4, 涂玮1,5   

  1. 1.南京师范大学地理科学学院,江苏 南京 210023
    2.昆山开放大学,江苏 苏州 215300
    3.江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,江苏 南京 210023
    4. 安徽大学商学院,安徽 合肥 230601
    5.南京旅游职业学院,江苏 南京 211100
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-15 修回日期:2015-01-04 出版日期:2015-11-20 发布日期:2015-11-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张 宏(1973–),男,安徽贵池人,副教授,博士,主要从事生态旅游与环境影响研究。E-mail:zhh20090@sina.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41271149)、国家社科基金(13CGL076)、江苏省文化科研项目(15YB24)、教育部人文社科青年基金(15YJC790018)资助

Environmental Effect of Tourism Waste in Ancient Town: Case Study of Zhouzhuang, Jinxi, Qiandeng

Hong ZHANG1,2(), Guo-lin HOU1,3(), Zhen-fang HUANG1, Ye-lin FANG4, Wei TU1,5   

  1. 1. College of Geographic Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China
    2. Kunshan Open University, Suzhou 215300, China
    3.Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China
    4. School of Business, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230601, China
    5. Nanjing Institute of Tourism, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211100, China
  • Received:2014-06-15 Revised:2015-01-04 Online:2015-11-20 Published:2015-11-20

摘要:

以不同生命周期阶段的周庄、锦溪、千灯3个古镇为例,采用5种旅游废弃物排放量时间序列数据,研究其环境库兹涅茨效应。结果表明: 不同生命周期阶段古镇旅游废弃物排放量与人均旅游收入之间关系存在差异。旅游发展生命周期处于相对成熟阶段的周庄,污水、粪便、垃圾排放量与人均旅游收入分别存在“U型”曲线关系、“U型”曲线关系、单调上升线性关系;处于稳定发展阶段的锦溪相应指标表现为“倒U型”曲线关系、“N型”曲线关系、“N型”曲线关系;处于快速发展阶段的千灯则表现为单调上升线性关系、“倒U型”曲线关系、线性上升关系;3个古镇气态旅游废弃物环境影响较小。 不同生命周期阶段古镇旅游经济发展与环境质量变化之间均存在单向的格兰杰因果作用关系。不同生命周期阶段古镇旅游废弃物环境质量影响具有差异性。周庄水环境指标COD、NH3-N呈现下降趋势,TP年际之间无显著差异性。锦溪水环境指标COD、NH3-N年际之间无显著差异性。千灯水环境指标COD自2009年后显著降低,TP呈现下降趋势。 加强旅游废弃物治理是实现水乡古镇旅游业可持续发展的关键。

关键词: 旅游废弃物, 环境影响, EKC曲线, 旅游经济, 水乡古镇

Abstract:

According to different life cycle stages of the three ancient towns (Zhouzhuang, Jinxi, Qiandeng), the article selects five variable indicators (waste water, excrement, solid waste, SO2 and NOx) and per capita income of monthly time series data from 2009 to 2013, uses Eviews 6.0 measurement software, and tests the environmental Kuznets curve fitting of tourism waste. The results are shown as follows. 1) There are differences between tourism waste emissions and per capita income in ancient town of different life cycle stages. The "U" curve relationship, "U" curve relationship and monotonically linear relationship existed between waste water, excrement and solid waste emissions and per capita income in the relatively mature stage of Zhouzhuang. The inflection point of "U" curve of waste water emissions is 28 197.63 t, the inflection point of "U" curve of excrement emissions is 10.82 t, and per capita income Ln(R) increased by 1%, solid waste emissions Ln(L) would increase by 0.051% of Zhouzhuang; Corresponding indicators showed the "inverted U" curve relationship, "N" type curve relationship and "N" type curve relationship in the stable development stage of Jinxi. The inflection point of "inverted U" curve of waste water emissions is 13 741.46 t, the two inflection points of "N" type curve of excrement emissions were 5.80 t and 5.54 t, the two inflection points of "N" type curve of solid waste emissions were 125.90 t and 124.81 t of Jinxi; Corresponding indicators showed the monotonically linear relationship, "inverted U" curve relationship and linear rise in the rapid development stage of Qiandeng. Per capita income Ln(R) increased by 1%, waste water emissions Ln(Ws) would increase by 0.124%, the inflection point of "inverted U" curve of excrement emissions is 12.15 t, per capita income Ln(R) increased by 1%, solid waste emissions Ln(L) would increase by 0.017% of Qiandeng; The environmental impact is small of waste gas in three ancient town. 2) One-way Granger causality relationship existed between tourism economic development and environmental quality change in the ancient towns with different life cycle stages. Per capita income was respectively the Granger cause of waste water, excrement and solid waste emissions, but waste water, excrement and solid waste emissions were not the Granger cause of per capita income in the three ancient towns. 3) The environmental impact of tourism waste are different in ancient town of different life cycle stages. Water environment index COD and NH3-N showed a trend of decline, there was no significant difference between the interannual of TP in Zhouzhuang. There were no significant differences between the interannual of COD and NH3-N in Jinxi. COD decreased significantly since 2009, NH3-N showed a trend of increase, TP showed a trend of decline in Qiandeng. 4) Strengthening tourism waste management is the key factor to realize sustainable development of ancient town tourism.

Key words: tourism waste, environmental impact, environmental Kuznets curve, tourist economy, ancient water town

中图分类号: 

  • F592.99