地理科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (12): 1640-1647.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1640

• • 上一篇    

1960~2014年北京极端气温事件变化特征

李双双(), 杨赛霓()   

  1. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室减灾与应急管理研究院,北京100875
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-15 修回日期:2015-02-21 出版日期:2015-01-20 发布日期:2015-01-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李双双(1988-),男,陕西潼关人,博士研究生,主要研究全球变化与区域灾害防治。E-mail:lss40609010@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    地表过程模型与模拟创新研究群体科学基金项目(41321001)和国家重点基础研究发展计划(2012CB955402)资助

Changes of Extreme Temperature Events in Beijing During 1960-2014

Shuang-shuang LI(), Sai-ni YANG()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2014-10-15 Revised:2015-02-21 Online:2015-01-20 Published:2015-01-20

摘要:

基于北京1960~2014年逐日最高温、最低温、平均气温实测数据,采取RHtest方法对气温序列进行均一性检验和修订。在此基础上选取16个极端气温指标,分析了北京市极端气温变化趋势和突变特征,探讨了冷暖极端气温指数对北京气候暖化的贡献。结果表明: 1960~2014年北京气温暖化趋势明显,最低温增温速率远快于最高温,修订后增长速率为:最高温(0.17℃/10a)<平均温(0.30℃/10a)<最低温(0.51℃/10a); 冷昼日数、冷夜日数、霜冻日数、冰冻日数、冷持续日数分别以-1.43 d/10a、-6.56 d/10a、-3.95 d/10a、-1.18 d/10a、-4.83 d/10a的趋势减小; 暖昼日数、暖夜日数、夏季日数、热夜日数、暖持续日数、生物生长季以2.12 d/10a、5.27 d/10a、1.22 d/10a、5.43 d/10a、0.84 d/10a、1.96 d/10a的趋势增加; 日最高 (低) 气温极高值、日最高(低) 气温极低值和气温日较差的倾向率分别为0.21℃/10a、0.34℃/10a、0.31℃/10a、0.73℃/10a、-0.33℃/10a; 极端最低气温的变暖幅度大于极端最高气温,夜指数的变暖幅度大于昼指数,冷指数的变幅大于暖指数。极端气温冷指数、夜指数、低温指数的快速变化是近年来北京市气候暖化的最直接体现。

关键词: 气候变化, 极端气温, 变化趋势, 北京

Abstract:

Based on daily average, maximum and minimum temperature observed by the China Meteorological Administration at meteorological station in Beijing from 1960 to 2014. Sixteen indices of extreme temperature are studied. Applying the method of Rhtest, the series that have breakpoints are adjusted and the trends of the series are analyzed, the annual temperature trend has changed obviously and the homogeneity is improved well. The results showed that: 1) In general, the temperature increment is obvious in Beijing during 1960-2014, with generally stronger increases in minimum temperature than in maximum temperature, as for climate inclination rate after adjustment: the maximum temperature (0.17℃/10a)-1.43, -6.56, -3.95, -1.18 and -4.83 d/10a days/decade respectively. 3) While the occurrence of warm days, warm nights, summer days, tropical nights, warm spell duration days and growing season length shows statistically significant increasing trends at rates of -2.12, 5.27, 1.22, 5.43, 0.84 and 1.96 d/10a days/decade respectively. 4) The tendency rate of annual minimum value of daily maximum (minimum) temperature, annual maximum value of daily maximum (minimum) and diurnal temperature range is 0.18, 0.23, 0.46, 0.73 and -0.36℃/decade respectively. 5) The magnitudes of changes in cold indices (cold nights, ice days, frost days, cold spell duration days) are obviously greater than those of warm indices (warm nights, warm spell duration days, summer days). The change ranges of night indices (warm nights and cold nights) are larger than those of day indices (warm days and cold days). The change ranges of minimum-temperature-related indices (annual minimum value of daily maximum, annual minimum value of daily minimum) are larger than those of maximum-temperature-related indices (annual maximum value of daily maximum and annual maximum value of daily minimum). This explains the stronger warming in the past 55 years in Beijing due to the change of night indices, cool indices and minimum-temperature- related indices.

Key words: climate change, temperature extremes, variation tendency, Beijing

中图分类号: 

  • p468.0+21