Based on daily average, maximum and minimum temperature observed by the China Meteorological Administration at meteorological station in Beijing from 1960 to 2014. Sixteen indices of extreme temperature are studied. Applying the method of Rhtest, the series that have breakpoints are adjusted and the trends of the series are analyzed, the annual temperature trend has changed obviously and the homogeneity is improved well. The results showed that: 1) In general, the temperature increment is obvious in Beijing during 1960-2014, with generally stronger increases in minimum temperature than in maximum temperature, as for climate inclination rate after adjustment: the maximum temperature (0.17℃/10a)<the average temperature(0.30℃/10a)<the minimum temperature (0.51℃/10a); 2) The frequency of cold days, cold nights, frost days, ice days and cold spell duration days is found to have significantly decreased by -1.43, -6.56, -3.95, -1.18 and -4.83 d/10a days/decade respectively. 3) While the occurrence of warm days, warm nights, summer days, tropical nights, warm spell duration days and growing season length shows statistically significant increasing trends at rates of -2.12, 5.27, 1.22, 5.43, 0.84 and 1.96 d/10a days/decade respectively. 4) The tendency rate of annual minimum value of daily maximum (minimum) temperature, annual maximum value of daily maximum (minimum) and diurnal temperature range is 0.18, 0.23, 0.46, 0.73 and -0.36℃/decade respectively. 5) The magnitudes of changes in cold indices (cold nights, ice days, frost days, cold spell duration days) are obviously greater than those of warm indices (warm nights, warm spell duration days, summer days). The change ranges of night indices (warm nights and cold nights) are larger than those of day indices (warm days and cold days). The change ranges of minimum-temperature-related indices (annual minimum value of daily maximum, annual minimum value of daily minimum) are larger than those of maximum-temperature-related indices (annual maximum value of daily maximum and annual maximum value of daily minimum). This explains the stronger warming in the past 55 years in Beijing due to the change of night indices, cool indices and minimum-temperature- related indices.
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In this paper, studies on extreme climate in China including extreme temperature and precipitation, dust weather activity, tropical cyclone activity, intense snowfall and cold surge activity, floods, and droughts are reviewed based on the peer-reviewed publications in recent decades. The review is focused first on the climatological features, variability, and trends in the past half century and then on simulations and projections based on global and regional climate models. As the annual mean surface air temperature (SAT) increased throughout China, heat wave intensity and frequency overall increased in the past half century, with a large rate after the 1980s. The daily or yearly minimum SAT increased more significantly than the mean or maximum SAT. The long-term change in precipitation is predominantly characterized by the so-called southern flood and northern drought pattern in eastern China and by the overall increase over Northwest China. The interdecadal variation of monsoon, represented by the monsoon weakening in the end of 1970s, is largely responsible for this change in mean precipitation. Precipitation-related extreme events (e.g., heavy rainfall and intense snowfall) have become more frequent and intense generally over China in the recent years, with large spatial features. Dust weather activity, however, has become less frequent over northern China in the recent years, as result of weakened cold surge activity, reinforced precipitation, and improved vegetation condition. State-of-the-art climate models are capable of reproducing some features of the mean climate and extreme climate events. However, discrepancies among models in simulating and projecting the mean and extreme climate are also demonstrated by many recent studies. Regional models with higher resolutions often perform better than global models. To predict and project climate variations and extremes, many new approaches and schemes based on dynamical models, statistical methods, or their combinations have been developed, resulting in improved skills. With the improvements of climate model capability and resolution as well as our understanding of regional climate variability and extremes, these new approaches and techniques are expected to further improve the prediction and projection on regional climate variability and extremes over China in the future.