地理科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (4): 402-409.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.04.402

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洛杉矶学派及其对人文地理学的影响

孙斌栋, 魏旭红(), 王婷   

  1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062;华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2013-12-23 接受日期:2014-04-10 出版日期:2015-04-20 发布日期:2015-04-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:孙斌栋(1970-),男,河北阜平人,教授,博导,主要从事城市地理、城市规划和区域经济研究。E-mail: bdsun@re.ecnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471139)、上海哲学社会科学规划课题(2014BCK003)、教育部人文社科重点研究基地重大项目(11JJDZH004)资助

Los Angeles School and Its Impacts on Disciplines of Human Geography

Bin-dong SUN, Xu-hong WEI(), Ting WANG   

  1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies/The School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200241, China
  • Received:2013-12-23 Accepted:2014-04-10 Online:2015-04-20 Published:2015-04-20

摘要:

对洛杉矶学派的缘起、背景、学术观点进行了系统的介绍,并对其在人文地理学多个分支学科产生的影响进行了梳理和分析。洛杉矶学派的学术思想建立在索亚提出的社会-空间辩证理论基础之上,认为在同一生产方式下,社会和空间是相互影响的。危机与重构是社会-空间辩证关系在城市区域发展现实中的投射。洛杉矶学派以洛杉矶大都市区的发展为蓝本,生动地诠释了社会空间的辩证思想以及危机、重构在现实中的体现,认为洛杉矶大都市区是向后现代城市发展转型的典型案例。洛杉矶学派的观点对人文地理学具有重要的影响,丰富了“人地关系”的内涵,提出了弹性生产下的新产业空间的概念,指出多中心结构是未来城市区域的发展方向,倡导空间上的社会正义,对经济地理、城市地理和社会地理的研究都起到了积极的推动作用。

关键词: 洛杉矶学派, 后现代, 社会-空间辨证, 新产业空间, 多中心, 空间正义

Abstract:

Emerging at the end of 1980s, urban theorists, cultural critics and social commentators have devoted a tremendous amount of attention to the study of Los Angeles. This attention derives from the complex theoretical and practical urban issues in Los Angeles, and also from the continuous competition among the power of globalization, which obviously influenced the general economic order all over the world. Los Angeles School (LA School) is constructed by a group of geography scholars, such as Edward W. Soja, Allen J. Scott, Michael J. Dear, Mike Davis et al., to generalize their systematic academic points of view. This article aims to make a detailed and systematic introduction to the LA school, and tries to sort out its impacts on many disciplines in the field of human geography. According to the summarization, this article supports that the LA school is based on Soja’s social-spatial dialectics theory. This theory strongly suggests that spatiality also plays a big role in the formation of social relations when the basic production mode in the era and keeps unchanged. Under this theoretical framework, we can see that crisis and reconstruction are just the dialectic’s projection in reality, which means that crisis tends to cause urban reconstruction, and the reconstruction may lead to some new urban crisis at the same time. Los Angeles metropolitan area has provided a vivid interpretation and reasonably exemplified LA school’s basic academic points of view, as well gives us an accurate demonstration of the circulation between urban crisis and reconstruction. Many views of LA School have already made an important influence on the branches of human geography, such as economic geography, urban geography and social geography, providing a lot of important academic hypothesis and ideas for follow-up researches. The main contribution that the LA school has made includes the significant enrichment on the core and traditional idea of the relationship between mankind and nature, as well as the promotion of the new industrial space concept in the field of economic geography. Meanwhile, the case of Los Angeles metropolitan’s typical polycentric spatial structure may be the representative of cities and city-regions in the future, which has already led to much more researches concerning about the description and definition of urban spatial structure, as well as the emergence of some new conceptions such as sub-centers and edge cities. As to social issues LA school regards them as results of social and spatiality relationship, for example, economic restructuring has increased employment but also increased poverty and social polarization, so that LA school strongly stands for the concept of spatial justice, which means no matter which columns or groups the citizens belong to, they should be given equal rights to live, work and enjoy the entertainment in the city. However, the LA school also bears some critical voices and doubts, such as some doubts about its basic epistemologies, which cannot be proved and certificated by regular methods, we have to accept that the LA school still has significant and positive influence in promoting the crucial disciplines in human geography.

Key words: Los Angeles School, postmodern, social-spatial dialectics, new industrial space, polycentric, spatial justice

中图分类号: 

  • K901