地理科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (4): 419-426.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.04.419

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基于DEA和Malmquist的中国城市代谢效率研究

陈雪婷1, 宋涛2(), 蔡建明2, 李玏2,3, 邓羽2   

  1. 1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,吉林长春130024
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
    3.中国科学院大学,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-01-25 修回日期:2014-04-09 出版日期:2015-04-20 发布日期:2015-04-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陈雪婷(1982-),女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,博士研究生,主要从事人文地理学及旅游地理研究。E-mail:chenxueting000@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40971100)资助

The Chinese Urban Metabolic Efficiencies Based on the DEA and Malmquist

Xue-ting CHEN1, Tao SONG2(), Jian-ming CAI2, Le LI2,3, Yu DENG2   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Science, Changchun, Jilin 130024, China
    2. Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China
    3. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China
  • Received:2014-01-25 Revised:2014-04-09 Online:2015-04-20 Published:2015-04-20

摘要:

运用物质流、数据包络分析(DEA)及Malmquist指数对中国31个案例城市进行了城市代谢效率的研究。通过将城市代谢系统社会经济产出、环境非期望产出及水、电、化石能源、金属矿物、建筑材料、食物等投入部分纳入进DEA和Malmquist指数中,测得了案例城市的2000年、2010年代谢效率及变化趋势。研究结果发现,中国城市代谢系统效率总体相对较高,尤其是东中部地区城市的综合效率、纯技术效率和规模效率要高于西部地区城市,大城市的代谢综合效率高于巨型、超大和特大城市。2000~2010年,城市代谢综合效率、纯技术效率等所有效率指标的均值均呈现出下降趋势,但是中、西部地区城市的综合效率和纯技术效率却呈改善趋势,并且特大和超大城市的综合效率高于巨型城市。

关键词: 城市代谢效率, 物质流分析, DEA, Malmquist指数, 中国城市

Abstract:

Urban metabolic systems are co-evolution systems of the urban economic development, the natural environment and the social environment. In this article, 31 Chinese cities′ metabolic efficiencies are tested by the material flow analysis, data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist index. Inputs and outputs of urban metabolic systems in 2000, 2010 are measured in the DEA and Malmquist index, such as economic output, environmental undesirable output, water, electricity, fossil fuels, metallic minerals, building materials, food and other inputs. Chinese cities metabolic systems have relatively high overall efficiencies, especially cities in the Eastern Coastal and Central China, with higher pure technical efficiencies and scale efficiencies than the western cities. In 2000, Tianjin, Haikou and other six cities reached the DEA optimal; while in 2010, seven cities reached the DEA optimal. The overall metabolic efficiencies of such highly developed cities as Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Suzhou and other cities have maintained a relatively high level, with the average reaching more than 0.5. While the least efficient cities, Fuzhou, Chongqing and et al., have not improved significantly during the last decade. Large cities have better performances in urban efficiencies than that in giant, large and extra large cities. Since 2000 to 2010, the overall urban metabolic efficiencies, pure technical efficiencies and all other efficiency indicators show a decreasing trend, except the overall efficiencies and pure technical efficiencies of cities in the Western and Central China. It is important to take the strategy of resource-conservation and environmental protection to enhance the metabolic efficiencies of Chinese cities. Moreover, the overall urban metabolic efficiencies in large and extra-large cities are better than that in mega-cities, which proves that the moderate expansions of cities should be encouraged and supported in order to highlight scale economies; on the other hand, the government should control the scale of mega-cities to avoid diseconomies of scale. In addition, Most of the cities’ high scale efficiencies are the main reason for the urban better overall efficiency, which reflects the increasing returns to scale in urban metabolic efficiencies.

Key words: urban metabolic efficiency, material flow analysis, DEA, Malmquist index, Chinese cities

中图分类号: 

  • F290