1. Institute of Geography, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China 2. Key Laboratory of Humid Subtropical Eco-geographical Processes, Ministry of Education, College of Geography Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China 3. College of Tourism and Air Service, Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China 4. College of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046, China 5. Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617, China
通过黔北三星洞2支石笋(编号：SX3-a和SX14)的 25个高精度230Th年龄（测年误差≤76 a）和740个氧同位素数据,重建了末次冰消期至早全新世（16.82±0.04~8.29±0.03 ka B.P.）平均分辨率达10 a的亚洲夏季风演变历史。无论在千年尺度还是百年尺度,甚至是十年际气候事件上,三星石笋δ18O记录的季风气候与北高纬气候都存在耦合关系。然而,在波令-阿勒罗德（B?lling-Aller?d）时期,与格陵兰冰芯所记录的温度逐渐回冷的趋势相反,亚洲夏季风表现出逐渐增强的过程。太阳辐射能量的增加和越赤道气流的增强有可能是引起此时期夏季风增强的主要原因。在前北方期(11.7~9 ka B.P.)时,南极温度、大气CO2浓度和CH4浓度等在新仙女木（Younger Dryas, YD)结束后均达到最大值,而石笋δ18O记录表明在YD冷事件结束后,直到9 ka B.P.左右亚洲夏季风才达到最盛期。冰消期结束后,虽然太阳辐射能量已经达到高值,但直到9 ka B.P.之前,北美大陆仍然残留较大的冰盖,有可能对夏季风的增强起到一定的限制作用。另外,早全新世南极变冷同样有可能通过加强越赤道气流来影响夏季风气候。
The last deglaciation, transition from the last glacial maximum to the present interglacial (Holocene), has great importance in understanding how Earth’s climate system can abruptly switch from one state to another. This transition was also characterized by several abrupt climatic oscillations, including Heinrich event 1, B?lling-Aller?d, and Younger Dryas. However, uncertainty remains regarding the similarities and differences in monsoon history in different region. Here, we present a high-resolution (10-year on average) monsoonal record covering the time range from 16.82±0.04 to 8.29±0.03 ka BP, Based on 25 high-precision 230Th dates and 740 Oxygen isotopic data from stalagmite SX3-a and SX14 from Sanxing Cave, Northern Guizhou Province, China, an average 10 a resolution Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) record during the last deglacial was produced. Millennial- to decadal- scale coupling between the ASM and northern high-latitude climate persisted through whole last deglacial period, suggesting that the Atlantic meridional circulation play a role in monsoon climate. Decoupled from decreasing temperatures in Greenland during the BA, the concurrent intensified AM is likely attributed to the increasing insolation and the strong cross-equatorial flow. During the “Preboreal episode”, Antarctic temperature, atmospheric CO2 and CH4 were reached to its maximum values after the abrupt transition of Younger Dryas. Howerver, ASM experienced a 2.7 ka-long gradual increase of the monsoon rainfall. The summer insolation in the North Hemisphere was maximal at around 11,000 a B.P., however, until about 9 000 a B.P. a large remnant ice sheet persisted in North America, which could be impede the rebound of ASM. In addition, the cooling of the Antarctic during the early Holocene maybe also influenced ASM through the strong cross-equatorial flow.
. 黔北洞穴石笋记录的末次冰消期至早全新世百年~十年际气候变化[J]. 地理科学,
2015, 35(6): 773-781.
Xiao-yan WANG et al
. The Centennial to Decadal Scale Variation of Summer Monsoon Precipitation in Northern Guizhou Province During the Last Deglacial[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA,
2015, 35(6): 773-781.
Wang YJ, ChengH, Edwards RL, et al.A high-resolution absolute-dated Late Pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China[J]. , 2001, 294: 2345-2348./s?wd=paperuri%3A%2860656fc0cde5a35924c7d546a72be3a6%29&filter=sc_long_sign&tn=SE_xueshusource_2kduw22v&sc_vurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cell.com%2Fservlet%2Flinkout%3Fsuffix%3De_1_5_1_2_69_2%26dbid%3D16%26doi%3D10.1016%2Fj.cell.2013.01.016%26key%3D10.1126%252Fscience.1064618%26cf%3D&ie=utf-8&sc_us=17142016923407011471
Dykoski CA, Edwards RL, ChengH, et al.A high-resolution absolute-dated Holocene and deglacial Asian monsoon record from Dongge Cave, China[J]. , 2005, 233: 71-86.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X05000865
Previous work on speleothems from Hulu Cave, China, demonstrated a link between last glacial period and deglacial East Asian monsoon intensity and millennial-scale events in the North Atlantic as well as orbitally induced insolation variations (Wang et al., 2001, Science, 294, 2345-2348). The East Asian monsoon originates from the tropical Pacific thereby connecting this specific site in the tropics to the processes creating these millennial-scale events. Recently these events have been observed to extend into the Holocene (Bond et al., 2001, Science, 278, 1257-1266), challenging the idea of fairly stable climatic conditions observed in Greenland ice cores during the Holocene. Here we present a continuous record of the Asian monsoon over the last 16,000 years from stalagmite calcite to further extend the link between Asian monsoon intensity and millennial-scale events into the Holocene. This time range overlaps the Hulu stalagmites by 006,000 years and a strong correlation is observed between the two records suggesting the same mechanisms affecting the East Asian monsoon affect a broader region of the Asian monsoon system. 808 oxygen isotopic measurements providing information on shifts in monsoon precipitation are combined with a chronology from 45 precise Th dates. Monsoon intensity increased dramatically ( 003‰ ) during the start of the Holocene ( 0011.5 ka) and remained high for 006 ka. In the middle-late Holocene, two abrupt positive shifts in δ O occur at 5457+/-75 years (0.75‰ in 170 y) and 3614+/-50 years (1.1‰ in 15 y) corresponding to a stepwise decrease in Asian monsoon intensity at these times. In addition, several other smaller intervals of decreased Asian monsoon activity occur suggesting millennial-scale features are present in the Holocene. Whereas one period of decreased activity occurs at 8085 years BP within error of the "8200-year event" seen in Greenland ice cores, similar events ( 001.1‰ ) are present throughout the record. Therefore the "8200 year event" is not clearly evident in the monsoon record. Spectral analyses of the δ O record show significant peaks at 205- and 88- year cycles, which are also present in records of solar activity (Stuiver and Braziunas, 1993, Holocene, 3, 289-305), suggesting monsoon variation is influenced by solar forcing. However, there are numerous significant peaks at periods not present in the solar spectra. Thus, there are additional features besides insolation and solar variations, which affect the Asian monsoon.
Cai YJ, An ZS, ChengH, et al.High-resolution absolute-dated Indian Monsoon record between 53 and 36 ka from Xiaobailong Cave, southwestern China[J]. , 2006, 34(8): 621-624.http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Geo....34..621C
中国科学院机构知识库(中国科学院机构知识库网格（CAS IR GRID）)以发展机构知识能力和知识管理能力为目标，快速实现对本机构知识资产的收集、长期保存、合理传播利用，积极建设对知识内容进行捕获、转化、传播、利用和审计的能力，逐步建设包括知识内容分析、关系分析和能力审计在内的知识服务能力，开展综合知识管理。
Cai BG, Edwards RL, ChengH, et al.A dry episode during the Younger Dryas and centennial-scale weak monsoon events during the early Holocene: A high-resolution stalagmite record from southeast of the Loess Plateau, China[J]. , 2008, 35: L02705, doi: 10.1029/2007GL030986.
Shen CC, ChengH, Edwards RL, et al.Measurement of attogram quantities of 231Pa in dissolved and particulate fractions of seawater by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectroscopy[J]. , 2003, 75: 1075-1079.http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_PM12641225
A technique has been developed to quantify ultratrace 231Pa (50-2000 ag; 1 ag = 10(-18) g) concentrations in seawater using isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). The method is a modification of a process developed by Pickett et al. (Pickett, D. A.; Murrell, M. T.; Williams, R. W. Anal. Chem. 1994, 66, 1044-1049) and extends the technique to very low levels of . The procedural blank is 16 +/- 15 ag (2sigma), and the ionization efficiency (ions generated/atom loaded) approaches 0.5%. Measurement time is <1 h. The amount of 231Pa needed to produce 231Pa data with an uncertainty of +/-4-12% is 100-1000 ag (approximately 3 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(6) ). Replicate measurements made on known standards and seawater samples demonstrate that the analytical precision approximates that expected from counting statistics and that, based on detection limits of 38 and 49 ag, can be detected in a minimum sample size of surface seawater of approximately 2 L for suspended particulate matter and <0.1 L for filtered (<0.4 microm) seawater, respectively. The concentration of 231Pa (tens of attograms per liter) can be determined with an uncertainty of +/-5-10% (2sigma) for suspended particulate matter filtered from 5 to 10 L of seawater. For the dissolved fraction, 0.5-1 L of seawater yields 231Pa measurements with a precision of 1-10%. Sample size requirements are orders of magnitude less than traditional decay-counting techniques and significantly less than previously reported -MS techniques. Our technique can also be applied to other environmental samples, including cave , rivers, and igneous rocks.
Shen CC, Wu CC, ChengH, et al.High-precision and high-resolution carbonate 230Th dating by MC-ICP-MS with SEM protocols[J]. , 2012, 99: 71-86.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016703712005248
<h2 class="secHeading" id="section_abstract">Abstract</h2><p id="sp0005">To facilitate the measurement of U–Th isotopic compositions suitable for high-precision and high-resolution <sup>230</sup>Th dating of coral and speleothem carbonates, secondary electron multiplier (SEM) protocol techniques for multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) have been developed. The instrumental sensitivities are 1–2%, with a precision of ±1–2‰ (2<em>σ</em>) for abundance determination of 50–200 fg <sup>234</sup>U (1–4 ng <sup>238</sup>U) or <sup>230</sup>Th. This method features chemistry refinements, improvements to procedural and instrumental blanks, spectral inference reductions, and careful consideration of non-linear SEM behavior. Measurement consistency of this MC-ICP-MS combined with previous mass spectrometric results on U–Th standards and a variety of carbonates demonstrates the validity of the SEM protocol method. For fossil corals, a routine U–Th isotopic determination at permil-level precision requires only 10–50 mg of carbonate. As little as 200 mg of young coral with an age of less than 20 yr can be dated with a precision of ±0.3–0.8 yr. About 20–200 mg speleothem samples with sub-ppm-to-ppm U are required to earn a 5‰ precision on ages from 5 to 100 kyr. Requirement of small sample size, 10–100s mg carbonate, can permit high temporal resolution to date speleothems with slow growth rates, i.e., 1–10 mm/kyr. This high-precision <sup>230</sup>Th chronology is critical to accurately establish age models, date events and splice geochemical proxy time series records from multiple samples in the fields of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. The U–Th isotopic determination techniques described here can also be applied to different environmental samples, such as waters, rocks, and sediments.</p>
Yuan DX, ChengH, Edwards RL, et al.Timing, duration and transition of the last interglacial Asian Monsoon[J]. , 2004, 304: 575-578.http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_PM15105497
Abstract Thorium-230 ages and oxygen isotope ratios of stalagmites from Dongge Cave, China, characterize the Asian Monsoon and low-latitude precipitation over the past 160,000 years. Numerous abrupt changes in 18O/16O values result from changes in tropical and subtropical precipitation driven by insolation and millennial-scale circulation shifts. The Last Interglacial Monsoon lasted 9.7 +/- 1.1 thousand years, beginning with an abrupt (less than 200 years) drop in 18O/16O values 129.3 +/- 0.9 thousand years ago and ending with an abrupt (less than 300 years) rise in 18O/16O values 119.6 +/- 0.6 thousand years ago. The start coincides with insolation rise and measures of full interglacial conditions, indicating that insolation triggered the final rise to full interglacial conditions.
Wang YJ, ChengH, Edwards RL, et al.Millennial-and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224, 000 years[J]. , 2008, 451: 1090-1093.http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_PM18305541
High-resolution speleothem records from China have provided insights into the factors that control the strength of the East Asian monsoon. Our understanding of these factors remains incomplete,however,owing to gaps in the record of monsoon history over the past two interglacial-glacial cycles. In particular,missing sections have hampered our ability to test ideas about orbital-scale controls on the monsoon,the causes of millennial-scale events and relationships between changes in the monsoon and climate in other regions. Here we presented an absolute-dated oxygen isotope record from Sanbao cave,central China,that completes a Chinese-cave-based record of the strength of the East Asian monsoon that covers the past 224,000 years. The record is dominated by 23,000-year-long cycles that are synchronous within dating errors with summer insolation at 65掳 N,supporting the idea that tropical/subtropical monsoons respond dominantly and directly to changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation on orbital timescales. The cycles are punctuated by millennial-scale strong-summer-monsoon events (Chinese interstadials),and the new record allows us to identify the complete series of these events over the past two interglacial-glacial cycles. Their duration decreases and their frequency increases during glacial build-up in both the last and penultimate glacial periods,indicating that ice sheet size affects their character and pacing. The ages of the events are exceptionally well constrained and may thus serve as benchmarks for correlating and calibrating climate records.
Zhang PZ, ChengH, Edwards RL, et al.A test of climate, sun, and culture relationships from an 1810-year Chinese cave record[J]. , 2008, 322: 940-942.http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_PM18988851
A record from Wanxiang Cave, China, characterizes Asian Monsoon (AM) history over the past 1810 years. The summer monsoon correlates with solar variability, Northern Hemisphere and Chinese temperature, Alpine glacial retreat, and Chinese cultural changes. It was generally strong during Europe’s Medieval Warm Period and weak during Europe’s Little Ice Age, as well as during the final decades of the Tang, Yuan, and Ming Dynasties, all times that were characterized by popular unrest. It was strong during the first several decades of the Northern Song Dynasty, a period of increased rice cultivation and dramatic population increase. The sign of the correlation between the AM and temperature switches around 1960, suggesting that anthropogenic forcing superseded natural forcing as the major driver of AM changes in the late 20th century.
Rasmussen SO, Andersen KK, Svensson AM, et al.A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination[J]. , 2006, 111: D06102, doi:10.1029/2005JD006079.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2005JD006079/abstract
We present a new common stratigraphic timescale for the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) and GRIP ice cores. The timescale covers the period 7.9-14.8 kyr before present and includes the B酶lling, Aller酶d, Younger Dryas, and early Holocene periods. We use a combination of new and previously published data, the most prominent being new high-resolution Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) impurity records from the NGRIP ice core. Several investigators have identified and counted annual layers using a multiparameter approach, and the maximum counting error is estimated to be up to 2% in the Holocene part and about 3% for the older parts. These counting error estimates reflect the number of annual layers that were hard to interpret, but not a possible bias in the set of rules used for annual layer identification. As the GRIP and NGRIP ice cores are not optimal for annual layer counting in the middle and late Holocene, the timescale is tied to a prominent volcanic event inside the 8.2 kyr cold event, recently dated in the DYE-3 ice core to 8236 years before A. D. 2000 (b2k) with a maximum counting error of 47 years. The new timescale dates the Younger Dryas-Preboreal transition to 11,703 b2k, which is 100-150 years older than according to the present GRIP and NGRIP timescales. The age of the transition matches the GISP2 timescale within a few years, but viewed over the entire 7.9-14.8 kyr section, there are significant differences between the new timescale and the GISP2 timescale. The transition from the glacial into the B酶lling interstadial is dated to 14,692 b2k. The presented timescale is a part of a new Greenland ice core chronology common to the DYE-3, GRIP, and NGRIP ice cores, named the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05). The annual layer thicknesses are observed to be log-normally distributed with good approximation, and compared to the early Holocene, the mean accumulation rates in the Younger Dryas and B酶lling periods are found to be 47 卤 2% and 88 卤 2%, respectively.
Sun YB, Clemens SC, MorrillC, et al.Influence of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on the East Asian winter monsoon[J]. , 2012, 5: 46-49.http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v5/n1/ngeo1326/metrics
RahmstorfS.Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120,000 years[J]. , 2002, 419: 207-214.http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_PM12226675
Oceans cover more than two-thirds of our blue planet. The waters move in a global circulation system, driven by subtle density differences and transporting huge amounts of heat. Ocean circulation is thus an active and highly nonlinear player in the global climate game. Increasingly clear evidence implicates ocean circulation in abrupt and dramatic climate shifts, such as sudden temperature changes in Greenland on the order of 5-10 degrees C and massive surges of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean --events that have occurred repeatedly during the last glacial cycle.
BergerA and Loutre MF. Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years[J]. , 1991, 10: 297-317.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/027737919190033Q
New values for the astronomical parameters of the Earth's orbit and rotation (eccentricity, obliquity and precession) are proposed for paleoclimatic research related to the Late Miocene, the Pliocene and the Quaternary. They have been obtained from a numerical solution of the Lagrangian system of the planetary point masses and from an analytical solution of the Poisson equations of the Earth-Moon system. The analytical expansion developed in this paper allows the direct determination of the main frequencies with their phase and amplitude. Numerical and analytical comparisons with the former astronomical solution BER78 are performed so that the accuracy and the interval of time over which the new solution is valid can be estimated. The corresponding insolation values have also been computed and compared to the former ones. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the new values are expected to be reliable over the last 5 Ma in the time domain and at least over the last 10 Ma in the frequency domain.
Kutzbach JE.Monsoon climate of the early Holocene: climate experiment with Earth's orbital parameters for 9000 years ago[J]. , 1981, 214: 59-61.http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_PM17802573
Values for the precession and obliquity of the earth 9000 years ago indicate that the global average solar radiation for July 9000 years ago was 7 percent greater than at present. When the estimated solar radiation values are used in a low-resulation climate model, the model simulates an intensified continent-scale monsoon circulation. This result agrees with paleoclimatic evidence from Africa, Arabia, and India that monsoon rains were stronger between 10,000 and 5000 years ago than they are today.
Shen CC, KanoA, HoriM, et al.East Asian monsoon evolution and reconciliation of climate records from Japan and Greenland during the last deglaciation[J]. , 2010, 29: 3327-3335.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379110003033
East Asian monsoon (EAM) evolution during the last deglaciation has been shown repeatedly to be aligned with paleoclimatic changes in the North Atlantic, based on climate reconstructions comparing Asian speleothem records with Greenland ice cores. In contrast to this finding, paleoclimatic reconstructions based on Lake Suigetsu sediment cores suggest that past EAM variability in Japan was not always coherent with climatic variability recorded in Greenland ice cores. We resolve this discrepancy using an absolute-dated stalagmite 未 18 O record that covers the period between 15.5 and 10.7 thousand years before present (ka, before AD 1950). This stalagmite record is from nearby Maboroshi cave, Japan, and shows climate changes that are synchronous with those of Chinese caves and Greenland ice cores. Our results support an effective teleconnection between low- and high-latitudinal climate systems during the transitions into the B酶lling鈥揂ller酶d (BA) warming at 14.6ka and the Younger Dryas cooling at 12.8ka in the North Atlantic. However, our results also indicate monsoonal intensification during the BA, coincident with decreasing temperatures in Greenland from 14.6 to 12.8ka. We explain this decoupling as a result of the interhemispheric bipolar seesaw climate system. Discrepancies between Lake Suigetsu radiocarbon age data sets and other radiocarbon calibration archives can also be removed when our Maboroshi record is used to adjust the Lake Suigetsu age model, as well as resolving temporal ambiguities in the Lake Suigetsu paleoclimate record.
Li ZZ, Cheng MH, Zeng XP.The causes and prediction of the persistent storm rainfall and flooding disaster in China[J]. , 2003, 39: 134-142.http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-BJDZ2003S1017.htm
The causes and prediction of persistent storm rainfall and the flooding disaster is one of the most difficult problems in the world scientific community.A review on the author's research in the field of the cross\|equatorial flow and the relationship with the storm rainfall and flooding disaster in the last 20 years was made.At the same time,the conception of the “Larg\|scale System between two Hemispheres” presented by Prof.Li Xianzhi (Sjan\|zsi Li) and Prof.Zeng Xiaoping's research results—the relationship between the geomagnetic anomaly and the storm rainfall as well as the flooding disaster in China was introduced too.It is founded that a “synthesis of meteorology and geophysics” upon the above results to predict the storm rainfall and heavy flooding.The 5 years operational test from 1998 to 2002 showed that the “synthesis of meteorology and geophysics”approach has reasonable forecasting skill and further study and experiments are needed to improve this method.
An ZS.The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate[J]. , 2000, 19: 171-187.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379199000608
Changes in the East Asian paleomonsoon reflect interactions between the global atmosphere, ocean, land and ice systems, and are also an expression of their combined effect within the boundary conditions imposed by the East Asian continent and solar radiation. The history of the East Asian monsoon is an alternation between dominance by the dry-cold winter and warm-humid summer monsoons. High-resolution eolian sequences preserved in the Chinese Loess Plateau reveal that the East Asian monsoon may have commenced at least 7.2 Ma ago. They also provide evidence indicating that the pulsed uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at about 3.4 and 7.2 Ma may have played an important role in inducing climate change. The palaeoclimatic records of the last glacial cycle show high-frequency variability on time scales of 1000-year or even shorter, and instability of the East Asian paleomonsoon system. The high-frequency variability could be due to a non-linear response to orbital forcing, or a result of the coupling processes between different components of the global system. Cold air activity in northern high latitudes, the trans-equatorial air streams from the Southern Hemisphere and, possibly, ENSO may have played an important role in East Asian monsoon variability. The synchroneity of all the palaeoclimatic events along the polar-equator-polar (PEP) transect is still an open question. Correlation of limited palaeoclimatic records for the last 30 kyr obtained from East Asia and Australia suggests that the trans-equatorial air streams driven by the monsoon and trade winds may have had an influence on opposite hemispheres.
EPICA CommunityMembers.One-to-one coupling of glacial climate variability in Greenland and Antarctica[J]. , 2006, 444: 195-198.http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_PM17099953
Precise knowledge of the phase relationship between climate changes in the two hemispheres is a key for understanding the Earth's climate dynamics. For the last glacial period, ice core studies have revealed strong coupling of the largest millennial-scale warm events in Antarctica with the longest Dansgaard-Oeschger events in Greenland through the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. It has been unclear, however, whether the shorter Dansgaard-Oeschger events have counterparts in the shorter and less prominent Antarctic temperature variations, and whether these events are linked by the same mechanism. Here we present a glacial climate record derived from an ice core from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, which represents South Atlantic climate at a resolution comparable with the Greenland ice core records. After methane synchronization with an ice core from North Greenland, the oxygen isotope record from the Dronning Maud Land ice core shows a one-to-one coupling between all Antarctic warm events and Greenland Dansgaard-Oeschger events by the bipolar seesaw6. The amplitude of the Antarctic warm events is found to be linearly dependent on the duration of the concurrent stadial in the North, suggesting that they all result from a similar reduction in the meridional overturning circulation.
Rohling EJ, Mayewski PA, ChallenorP.On the timing and mechanism of millennial-scale climate variability during the last glacial cycle[J]. , 2003, 20: 257-267.http://www.springerlink.com/index/pkrl408dbjtlly8x.pdf
The demonstration that natural climate variability during the last glacial cycle shifted rapidly between remarkable extremes has dramatically revised the understanding of climate change. To further advance our understanding, research continues into the timings, geographic distribution, and nature of the millennial-scale climate extremes, and into the mechanisms for intra- and inter-hemispheric transmission of variability through the climate/ocean system. Complementing the traditional definition of the timings of millennial-scale climate variability from ice-core d18O records, we here further narrow down the temporal constraints by determining statistically significant anomalies in the major ion series of the GISP2 ice core. This exercise offers an objective definition of the timing of climatic anomalies in Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate proxy records of the last 110,000 years that significantly improves the potential for inter-calibration of 鈥榠ce-core tuned鈥 chronostratigraphies. We then present a process-oriented synthesis of proxy records from the Northern Hemisphere. This leads to a conclusion that the Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) style fluctuations in these records are (virtually) in phase, since all fall within a clear (atmospheric) pattern of concerted relative dominance shifts between polar/westerly dominated winter-type conditions and tropical/monsoon dominated summer-type conditions. Finally, we speculate on a monsoon-related mechanism that could help explain the anomalously long duration of D-O interstadials 12, 8, and 1, which coincided with cooling trends in Antarctic records.
An ZS, Clemens SC, ShenJ, et al.Glacial-interglacial India Summer Monsoon Dynamics[J]. , 2011, 333: 719-723.
LüthiD, Le FlochM, BereiterB, et al.High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000[J]. , 2008, 453: 379-382.
LoulergueL, SchiltA, SpahniR, et al.Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years[J]. , 2008, 453: 383-386.http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_PM18480822
Abstract Atmospheric methane is an important greenhouse gas and a sensitive indicator of climate change and millennial-scale temperature variability. Its concentrations over the past 650,000 years have varied between approximately 350 and approximately 800 parts per 10(9) by volume (p.p.b.v.) during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively. In comparison, present-day methane levels of approximately 1,770 p.p.b.v. have been reported. Insights into the external forcing factors and internal feedbacks controlling atmospheric methane are essential for predicting the methane budget in a warmer world. Here we present a detailed atmospheric methane record from the EPICA Dome C ice core that extends the history of this greenhouse gas to 800,000 yr before present. The average time resolution of the new data is approximately 380 yr and permits the identification of orbital and millennial-scale features. Spectral analyses indicate that the long-term variability in atmospheric methane levels is dominated by approximately 100,000 yr glacial-interglacial cycles up to approximately 400,000 yr ago with an increasing contribution of the precessional component during the four more recent climatic cycles. We suggest that changes in the strength of tropical methane sources and sinks (wetlands, atmospheric oxidation), possibly influenced by changes in monsoon systems and the position of the intertropical convergence zone, controlled the atmospheric methane budget, with an additional source input during major terminations as the retreat of the northern ice sheet allowed higher methane emissions from extending periglacial wetlands. Millennial-scale changes in methane levels identified in our record as being associated with Antarctic isotope maxima events are indicative of ubiquitous millennial-scale temperature variability during the past eight glacial cycles.
FleitmannD, Burns SJ, MudelseeM, et al.Holocene Forcing of the Indian Monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from Southern Oman[J]. , 2003, 300: 1737-1739.http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_PM12805545
A high-resolution oxygen-isotope record from a thorium-uranium-dated stalagmite from southern Oman reflects variations in the amount of monsoon precipitation for the periods from 10.3 to 2.7 and 1.4 to 0.4 thousand years before the present (ky B.P.). Between 10.3 and 8 ky B.P., decadal to centennial variations in monsoon precipitation are in phase with temperature fluctuations recorded in Greenland ice cores, indicating that early Holocene monsoon intensity is largely controlled by glacial boundary conditions. After approximately 8 ky B.P., monsoon precipitation decreases gradually in response to changing Northern Hemisphere summer solar insolation, with decadal to multidecadal variations in monsoon precipitation being linked to solar activity.
WannerH, BeerJ, ButikoferJ, et al.Mid- to Late Holocene climate change: an overview[J]. , 2008, 27: 1791-1828.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379108001479
The last 6000聽years are of particular interest to the understanding of the Earth System because the boundary conditions of the climate system did not change dramatically (in comparison to larger glacial鈥搃nterglacial changes), and because abundant, detailed regional palaeoclimatic proxy records cover this period. We use selected proxy-based reconstructions of different climate variables, together with state-of-the-art time series of natural forcings (orbital variations, solar activity variations, large tropical volcanic eruptions, land cover and greenhouse gases), underpinned by results from General Circulation Models (GCMs) and Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs), to establish a comprehensive explanatory framework for climate changes from the Mid-Holocene (MH) to pre-industrial time. The redistribution of solar energy, due to orbital forcing on a millennial timescale, was the cause of a progressive southward shift of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This was accompanied by a pronounced weakening of the monsoon systems in Africa and Asia and increasing dryness and desertification on both continents. The associated summertime cooling of the NH, combined with changing temperature gradients in the world oceans, likely led to an increasing amplitude of the El Ni帽o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and, possibly, increasingly negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices up to the beginning of the last millennium. On decadal to multi-century timescales, a worldwide coincidence between solar irradiance minima, tropical volcanic eruptions and decadal to multi-century scale cooling events was not found. However, reconstructions show that widespread decadal to multi-century scale cooling events, accompanied by advances of mountain glaciers, occurred in the NH (e.g., in Scandinavia and the European Alps). This occurred namely during the Little Ice Age (LIA) between AD 鈭1350 and 1850, when the lower summer insolation in the NH, due to orbital forcing, coincided with solar activity minima and several strong tropical volcanic eruptions. The role of orbital forcing in the NH cooling, the southward ITCZ shift and the desertification of the Sahara are supported by numerous model simulations. Other simulations have suggested that the fingerprint of solar activity variations should be strongest in the tropics, but there is also evidence that changes in the ocean heat transport took place during the LIA at high northern latitudes, with possible additional implications for climates of the Southern Hemisphere (SH).
BardE, HamelinB, ArnoldM, et al.Deglacial sea-level record from Tahiti corals and the timing of global meltwater discharge[J]. , 1996, 382: 241-244.http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v382/n6588/abs/382241a0.html
ABSTRACT The timing of the last deglaciation is important to our understanding of the dynamics of large ice sheets and their effects on the Earth's surface. Moreover, the disappearance of the glacial ice sheets was responsible for dramatic increases in freshwater fluxes to the oceans, which probably disturbed the ocean's thermohaline circulation and, hence, global climate. Sea-level increase bear witness to the melting of continental ice sheets, but only two such records - from Barbados and New Guinea corals - have been accurately dated. But these corals overlie active subduction zones, where tectonic movements are large and often discontinuous (especially in New Guinea), so the apparent sea-level records may be contamined by a complex tectonic component. Here we date fossil corals from Tahiti, which is far from plate boundaries (and thus is likely to be tectonically relatively stable) and remote from the locations of large former ice sheets. The resulting record indicates a large sea-level jump shortly before 13,800 calendar years BP, which correponds to meltwater pulse 1 A in the Barbados coral records. The timing of this event is more accurately constrained in the Tahiti record, revealing that the meltwater pulse coincides with a short and intense climate cooling event that followed the initiation of the Bolling-Allerod warm period, but preceded the Younger Dryas cold event by about 1 000 years. (Résumé d'auteur)