地理科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (9): 1086-1094.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.09.1086

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基于DEM的交通线文化景观感知与功能分段研究——紫荆关长城景观的实证

李仁杰1,2(), 谷枫1(), 郭风华3, 傅学庆1,2   

  1. 1.河北师范大学资源与环境科学学院,河北 石家庄 050024
    2.河北省环境演变与生态建设实验室,河北 石家庄 050024
    3.河北省科学院地理科学研究所,河北 石家庄 050011
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-13 修回日期:2014-10-14 出版日期:2015-09-25 发布日期:2015-09-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李仁杰(1975-),男,河北鹿泉人,教授,硕士生导师,主要从事社会文化地理信息系统研究。E-mail:lrjgis@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41171105)、河北省科学院科技计划重大攻关项目(2013055508)、河北省杰出青年基金培育项目(D2015205208)、河北省高校重点学科建设项目资助

Cultural Landscape Perception Degree Model and Perception Function Division Based on DEM of Traffic Line: A Case Study of Zijingguan Great Wall

Ren-jie LI1,2(), Feng GU1(), Feng-hua GUO3, Xue-qing FU1,2   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024, China
    2.Hebei Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Ecological Construction,Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024, China
    3. Hebei Institute of Geographical Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050011, China
  • Received:2014-05-13 Revised:2014-10-14 Online:2015-09-25 Published:2015-09-25

摘要:

在已有景观感知度概念和模型基础上,根据景观规模和特征将交通线某一具体位置的景观感知度划分为单点景观、多点景观和组景观感知度,并提出了基于集合表达的交通线景观感知度模型,以解决在一组特定的线性空间单元或区域上开展景观感知的研究和计算问题。以紫荆关长城文化景观为例,利用DEM进行景观视域分析,并引入资源价值、遗存现状等权重因子,实现了紫荆关附近公路和铁路线的景观感知度定量计算。根据景观感知度的空间格局,准确划分了敌台、烽火台和马面等单点景观、墙体景观及各类组景观和综合景观的最佳感知功能路段和最佳观赏位置。总体来看,紫荆关附近的公路线可感知位置连续性更强,铁路线高感知位置相对离散,公路感知效果整体优于铁路感知。交通线景观感知度模型特别适合用于大型造型地貌、宏伟建筑群等景观感知分析,是对旅游景观规划设计方法的一种扩充,能够将旅游景观规划设计从旅游地内部拓展到旅游地外围,对于提高旅游景观导引设计的精准性、提升旅游文化传播效率和增加传播途径等均有理论参考意义和实践应用价值。

关键词: 景观感知度, 文化景观, 交通线, 功能分段, DEM, 紫荆关长城

Abstract:

Landscape perception is the result of the interaction between human and landscape. Viewshed analysis and visibility analysis are used for Landscape perception researches as important means. In this article, based on the existing landscape perception concepts and models, we try to establish a model named traffic line landscape perception degree model to solve the research and compute problems of the large-scale landscape perception degree on specific linear spatial units or areas. The model is actually the aggregate of single-point, multi-point and group scale traffic line landscape perception degree which is divided by the size and characteristics of the landscapes. And we build three formulas to validate the method of our model about landscape perception calculation. The approach is tested using a popular traffic line through the Zijingguan section of Great Wall in Hebei Province. Firstly, for quantitative calculation of the Zijingguan landscape perception near the highway and the railway line, the DEM data are used to calculate landscape viewshed analysis with some weighting factors such as resources value and status of remains. Aspect, distance and some others can also be weighting factors of a landscape relative to the observer. Then, according to the distribution of landscape perception along traffic line, the best sensing function sections and the best viewing positions of the single-point landscapes including enemy units, beacon towers, horse face, wall landscapes, various groups landscapes and integrated landscapes are divided accurately. Finally, we know that the continuity of highways perceived position is much stronger while the ones of the railways are relatively discrete, and the highway perception effect is better than that of railway perception. It is mainly attributed to the undulating terrain. The traffic line landscape perception degree model is particularly suitable for the analysis of large-scale landscapes, magnificent buildings and other landscape perception instead of delicate landscape in a close distance, and it can quantitatively calculate the distribution of landscapes along the traffic line and determine their linear distribution pattern. The raster images enable the planners or tourists to identify areas where the peak of emotional responses may occur in order to maximize viewing opportunities of beautiful landscapes and areas, or find potential locations to view landscape along traffic line. In this way, the railways, highways, rural roads, other ground transit routes and waterways can be used as non-specialized traveling space carriers in the fast viewing process of landscapes. This research represents the traffic line landscape perception degree model as a kind of extension of the tourism landscape planning and design methods, which can expand the tourism landscape planning and design from the inside tourism area to the outside. The model is also meaningful in the study of tourism landscape guiding design, and the researches of tourism culture transmission ways and efficiency.

Key words: landscape perception degree, cultural landscape, traffic line, function division, DEM, Zijingguan Great Wall

中图分类号: 

  • P901