地理科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (9): 1130-1139.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.09.1130

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日本国家尺度生物多样性综合评价概况及启示

陈平1(), 田竹君2(), 李曌1, 刘朋1   

  1. 1.中国环境监测总站,北京 100012
    2. 松辽流域水资源保护局松辽水环境科学研究所,吉林 长春 130021
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-08 修回日期:2014-07-25 出版日期:2015-09-25 发布日期:2015-09-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陈 平( 1964-) ,女,吉林长春人,正高级工程师,硕士,主要从事环境监测与评价以及日本环境监测技术体系研究。E-mail:chenping@cnemc.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(201309008)资金资助

An Overview on Comprehensive Biodiversity Assessment in Japan and Its Enlightenment

Ping CHEN1(), Zhu-jun TIAN2(), Zhao LI1, Peng LIU1   

  1. 1.China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing 100012,China
    2. Songliao Institute of Water Environmental Science, Songliao River Basin Bureau of Water Resources Conservation, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China
  • Received:2014-05-08 Revised:2014-07-25 Online:2015-09-25 Published:2015-09-25

摘要:

作为生物多样性公约缔约国,日本通过制定并修订生物多样性国家战略、颁布《生物多样性基本法》等政策加强生物多样性保护。2008年,日本成立生物多样性综合评价委员会,应用DPSIR概念模型建立综合评价指标体系,由14项原因评价指标和16项状态评价指标构成,共计30项评价指标;使用行政统计、国土资源调查、环境监测及科学研究等104种数据,对1950s以来50 a间日本全境的生物多样性状况进行了综合评价。日本生物多样性综合评价的管理特征和综合特征十分突出。评价方式是利用已有调查和监测数据(定量数据),分析因果关系,得出趋势结论,提出相应对策,为一种定性和定量相结合的趋势分析之综合评价方法。评价区域分为森林、农田、城市、陆地水域、沿岸和海洋、岛屿(离岛)六大生态系统类型区,分析了造成日本生物多样性损失的四次大的危机。探讨了其对中国生物多样性评价工作的借鉴意义。

关键词: 生物多样性保护, DPSIR概念模型, 生态系统类型, 综合评价, 日本

Abstract:

As a party of “Convention on Biological Diversity”, the Japanese government made national strategy on biodiversity and published the “Basic Law on Biodiversity” in order to strengthen biodiversity protection. In 2008, the DPSIR conceptual model was used by “Japanese Biodiversity Assessment Research Committee” to build up the comprehensive evaluation index system. The system is composed of 14 reason evaluation index and 16 state evaluation indexes, a total of 30 indicators. The committee used 104 data sets such as administrative statistics, land resources surveys, environment monitoring and scientific research data to appraise 50 years of the 20th century in Japan since the latter half of the national status of biodiversity loss and causes. The management and integrated features of Japanese comprehensive biodiversity assessment are very prominent. The evaluation method is to use the existing surveys and monitoring data (quantitative data), analyze the cause and effect relationship, get the trend conclusions, and put forward the corresponding countermeasures. It is a combination of qualitative and quantitative trend analysis method. The evaluation area is divided into forest, farmland, urban, inland waters, coastal and ocean, islands (off-islands), six large ecosystem types in total. We analyzed the loss of biodiversity caused by four major crises. We discussed the reference value for biodiversity assessment in China.

Key words: biological diversity, conceptual model of DPSIR, ecosystem types, comprehensive evaluation, Japan

中图分类号: 

  • X826