地理科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (9): 1198-1206.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.09.1198

• • 上一篇    

艾比湖流域农田土壤重金属的环境风险及化学形态研究

张兆永1,2(), 吉力力·阿不都外力1, 姜逢清1, 艾尼瓦尔·买买提3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京100049
    3.新疆大学化学化工学院, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830046
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-19 修回日期:2014-10-10 出版日期:2015-09-25 发布日期:2015-09-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张兆永(1985- ),男,山东临沂人,博士研究生,主要从事干旱区资源与环境研究。E-mail:baiyangdian313@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41471098)、国家自然科学基金-新疆联合基金(U1138301)资助

Environment Risk and Chemical Forms of Heavy Metals in Farmland of Ebinur Basin

Zhao-yong ZHANG1,2(), JILILI•Abuduwailil1, Feng-qing JIANG1, ANWAR·Mohammed3   

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046,China
  • Received:2014-06-19 Revised:2014-10-10 Online:2015-09-25 Published:2015-09-25

摘要:

采集土壤样品,测定8种重金属(As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、Ni、Pb、Zn)的总量及各形态含量,然后采用多种方法并结合土壤背景值进行分析。结果表明:艾比湖流域农田土壤中8种重金属的含量值均未超过国家土壤质量二级标准的限值, 8种重金属可以辨识为2个主成分,重金属Cd、Hg、Pb和Zn的较高风险区主要分布在研究区的中部,重金属As、Cr、Cu和Ni的较高风险区主要分布在研究区南部靠近荒漠、山地以及研究区边缘区域,重金属As、Cr和Ni均以残渣态为主,其他形态含量较低。农田土壤中重金属的生物毒性以Cb为最大,Pb和Hg次之。

关键词: 农田土壤, 重金属, 来源解析, 环境风险, 化学组成, 艾比湖流域

Abstract:

In order to investigate the sources, distribution characters, hazardous risks and the chemical fractions of heavy metals in the soil of farmland of Ebinur Basin which is under the rapid economy development, this article collected soils samples, and tested the total contents and chemical forms of 8 heavy metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Then we used multiple analysis methods, combined with the background values of China and Xinjiang, to analyze the values. The results show that: 1) The ranges of heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in all the samples were lower than those of the National Soil Quality Standards (2nd)(GB15618-1995), but the mean values were all higher than the background values of Xinjiang. 2) Multivariate statistical analysis shows that 8 heavy metals can be classified into two principal components, among which PC1 (Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn) was mainly influenced by the anthropogenic pollution, and PC2 (Cu, Ni, Cr, and As) was mainly influenced by the natural geological background. 3) Geo-statistical analysis shows that the high assessment risk regions of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn mainly distributed in the central and northern parts of the research area close to the townships and traffic routes. They all showed distribution characters with dot and facial shape, and they were mainly influenced by the strong human activities in these regions. While the high assessment risk regions of As, Cr, Cu, and Ni mainly distributed in the southern and the surrounding of the research area close to the desert and mountain, and they were mainly influenced by the relatively high natural geological background of this area. 4) Chemical fraction analysis shows that the main fractions of heavy metals As, Cr, and Ni were in residue states, but there were also low proportions of other states. The biological validity analysis shows that in the farmland of Ebinur Lake Basin, the biotoxicity of heavy metal Cb was the maximum, followed by Pb and Hg, and the biotoxicity of As was the minimum.

Key words: farmland, heavy metals, sources identification, environmental risk, chemical fraction, Ebinur Basin

中图分类号: 

  • X53