地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 157-160.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.01.020

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

长江口放射性核素Pu的大气湿沉降初步研究

张克新, 潘少明(), 徐仪红, 曹立国, 徐伟, 张威, 郝永佩   

  1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院 海岸与海岛开发教育部重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-06 修回日期:2014-12-21 出版日期:2016-01-20 发布日期:2016-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 潘少明,教授。E-mail:span@nju.edu.cn E-mail:span@nju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张克新(1980-),男,甘肃民勤人,博士研究生,主要从事放射性核素的应用和区域气候变化研究。E-mail:xbsdzkx2008@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271289, 41230751)资助

Atmospheric Wet Deposition of Radionuclide Pu in the Changjiang River Estuary Region

Kexin Zhang, Shaoming Pan(), Yihong Xu, Liguo Cao, Wei Xu, Wei Zhang, Yongpei Hao   

  1. The Key Laboratory of Ministry Education of Coastal and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2014-10-06 Revised:2014-12-21 Online:2016-01-20 Published:2016-01-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China (41271289, 41230751)

摘要:

利用东京239,240Pu的年沉降和年降水数据,对长江口地区1957~2005年239,240Pu 的年大气湿沉降通量进行研究。结果表明:长江口地区1957~2005年间239,240Pu的大气湿沉降量在0.001 2~5.531 Bq/m2之间,累计湿沉降通量为34.556 Bq/m2;该地区Pu的大气湿沉降主要集中在1960 s;1960 s初频繁的大气核试验是造成239,240Pu在1960 s沉降量较大的主要原因。长江口地区与东京地区239,240Pu大气沉降变化基本一致,两地的大气湿沉降均在1963 年出现明显峰值。

关键词: 放射性核素, 大气沉降, Pu, 长江口

Abstract:

Anthropogenic radionuclides (137Cs, 90Sr, and Pu isotopes) released from atmospheric nuclear tests, major nuclear reactor accidents, and other sources can be detected in the environment in most parts of the world. In particular, as a result of atmospheric nuclear explosions, about 15 PBq of 239,240Pu (1 PBq=1015 Bq) and 0.3 PBq of 238Pu have been globally released into the atmosphere. These radionuclides may be useful tracers of environmental changes, such as desertification, erosion and sedimentation processes, in terrestrial regions. Furthermore, measurements of radionuclide deposition are useful for several purposes, including the assessment of the effects of radiation from anthropogenic radionuclides on humans. They may also find use as indicators of environmental events. Most of the current investigations focus on the chemical behaviors such as transfer and diffusion in environment, but for the atmospheric wet deposition of radionuclide Pu, the publically available report is very limited in China. In this article, we investigated and quantified preliminarily the 239,240Pu atmospheric deposition in the Changjiang River Estuary Region based on the records of 239,240Pu atmospheric deposition and precipitation in Tokyo in Japan. The results indicated that 239,240Pu atmospheric deposition history in the Changjiang River Estuary Region was similar to that of the whole north hemisphere. The cumulative atmospheric deposition inventory of 239,240Pu was estimated to be 34.556 Bq/m2 in 1957-2005. The maximum annual deposition occurred in 1963 after the large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in 1950s-1960s conducted by the United States and former USSR. Annual 239,240Pu deposition decreased in the period from 1963 to 1967 according to the stratospheric residence time of nuclear debris. In the 1970s, the radionuclide deposition observed in the Changjiang River Estuary showed no decrease because of a series of American and Chinese atmospheric nuclear tests. In addition, 239,240Pu atmospheric deposition history in the Changjiang River Estuary Region was similar to that of Tokyo. The results proved that spatial distribution of the cumulative deposition of anthropogenic radionuclide Pu is similar on the same latitude regions of the northern hemisphere and the similar climate conditions.

Key words: Radionuclide, atmospheric deposition, Pu, the Changjiang River Estuary Region

中图分类号: 

  • P734