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地理科学    2016, Vol. 36 Issue (2): 170-179     DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.02.002
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
中国村庄空间分布特征及空间优化重组解析
杨忍1(),刘彦随2(),龙花楼2,王洋3,张怡筠1
1.中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广东 广州 510275
2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
3.广州地理研究所,广东 广州 510070
Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Optimized Reconstructing Analysis of Rural Settlement in China
Ren Yang1(),Yansui Liu2,3(),Hualou Long2,Yang Wang3,Yijun Zhang1
1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong, China
2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
3. Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou 510070, Guangdong, China
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摘要 

以中国电子地图数据和分县经济社会数据为基础,利用最邻近距离R指数模型分析中国村庄分布模式格局,结合地理探测器的研究方法对影响因素进行探测识别,同时解析乡村空间优化重组背景和模式。研究得出以下主要结论:① 中国村庄空间分布呈现出聚集、随机、离散均匀分布的并存空间分布模式,村庄空间分布模式区域差异特征显著。东南半壁的村庄分布密度远大于西北半壁,不同地域类型区的村庄空间分布模式表现出各异的特征。平原地区的村庄空间分布密集,空间分布模式以随机、分散为主,村庄之间邻近距离较近。高寒山区、沙漠边缘地带,村庄空间分布密度极低,村庄之间邻近距离偏大,村庄空间分布相对聚集。丘陵、山地交汇过渡地带,村庄空间分布密度较大,空间分布模式偏向随机分布。② 村庄分布受到传统因素和经济发展双重因子的影响,传统影响因素依然在发挥作用,但经济发展的影响愈加明显。不同区域地形、水资源条件对村庄分布影响显著。交通条件、产业非农化、经济发展、农业现代化发展对乡村生活、生产空间的空间形态和分布模式产生剧烈影响。③ 伴随乡村各种生产要素非农化流失,村庄空间亟待优化重组,优化以镇区为依托的中心村-基层村体系空间组织结构应为乡村物质空间优化重组有效选择。④ 在不同地域类型区域,村镇格局的空间优化重组形态可以采用放射均衡、放射非均衡、多核心均衡、走廊式布局模式及混合模式。

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杨忍
刘彦随
龙花楼
王洋
张怡筠
关键词 村庄空间分布模式地理探测器村镇体系重构村庄规划乡村地理学中国 
Abstract

This study focuses on the distribution characteristics, effect factors and optimized reconstructing analysis of rural settlement in China. Based on electronic map data in 2012 and socioeconomic data of counties in China, the spatial distribution pattern of rural settlement and effect factors have been examined using model of the average nearest neighbor distance and geographical detector method, while the background and mode for rural space optimization reconstruction were analyzed. Main results for this study are as follows: 1) the rural settlement spatial distribution mode consists of cluster, random and uniform discrete distributions in China, while the regional differences were significant. The density of rural settlements is greater in the southeastern region than in the northwest region with Hu Huanyong's population distribution line for the boundary in China. There were a variety of characteristics for the rural settlement distribution in different type of regions. The spatial distribution of rural settlement was intensive, and those spatial distribution modes were mainly random and disperse with a short average nearest neighbor distance in plain areas. On the other side, the density of rural settlement was low, and those spatial distribution modes were mainly cluster relatively with a long average nearest neighbor distance in highland and cold areas and fringes of the desert. In addition, the density of rural settlement was high, and those spatial distribution modes were mainly random in the intersected transition zone between hill and mountain. 2) The dual factors affect the rural settlement distribution from traditional and economy. Although the traditional factors still play a significance role, the influence of the economic developed more and more obviously. There were a large amount of factors attributing to impacting rural settlement distribution, the spatial form of production and life space, including natural topography and water resources natural conditions, etc. That also included traffic condition, industry, economic development level and agricultural modernization. 3) With factors of production non-agriculture in rural region, the rural space need be a reconstructing optimization. The priority selection is to rebuild village-town system for optimizing rural physical space. Theoretically, village-town system is a sort of hierarchical structure, consisting of central regional town, general agricultural town, central village and basic village. 4) The multiple modes will been made use of restructuring rural space in different geographical areas, including balance forms of radiation, radiation disequilibrium forms, multicore equilibrium forms and corridor layout pattern or mixed modes. From the system and the hierarchical logic level to deconstruct the rural space theory for optimization, a reasonable village-town system is rebuilt orderly, which will provide a scientific basis for urban and rural urbanization.

Key wordsspatial distribution modes of rural settlement    geographical detector    village-town system reconstruction    village planning    rural geography    China
收稿日期: 2014-12-30      出版日期: 2016-06-06
基金资助:国家自然科学基金青年项目(41401190、41101165、41401164)、中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(15lgpy34)资助
作者简介: 杨忍(1984-),男,贵州毕节人,博士,讲师,主要从事乡村转型与村镇规划、城乡转型重构与区域研究、土地规划管理及GIS应用研究.E-mail:yangren0514@163.com,yangren666@mail.sysu.edu.cn
引用本文:   
杨忍, 刘彦随, 龙花楼等 . 中国村庄空间分布特征及空间优化重组解析[J]. 地理科学, 2016, 36(2): 170-179.
Ren Yang, Yansui Liu, Hualou Long et al . Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Optimized Reconstructing Analysis of Rural Settlement in China[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA, 2016, 36(2): 170-179.
链接本文:  
http://geoscien.neigae.ac.cn/CN/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.02.002      或      http://geoscien.neigae.ac.cn/CN/Y2016/V36/I2/170
阈值 x1(m) x2(mm) x3(%) x4(km) x5(108元) x6(km) x7(103元) x8(%) x9(103元) x10(人/km2) x11(103kg/人) x12(kW/hm2) x13(hm2/人)
一级区 <500 <400 <30 <15 <25 <90 <4.5 <50 <15 <100 <2.0 <1.0 <0.1
二级区 500~100 400~800 30~50 15~30 25~50 90~150 4.5~7.5 50~75 15~30 100~300 2.0~3.0 1.0~1.5 0.1~0.2
三级区 >1000 >800 >50 >30 >50 >150 >7.5 >75 >30 >300 >3.0 >1.5 >0.2
Table 1  地理影响因素指标及分级标准
Fig. 1  2012年中国分县自然村庄密度空间分布
Fig. 2  2012年中国分县自然村庄空间分布R指数
Fig. 3  2012年中国分县村庄之间最邻近距离Cv值空间分布
Fig. 4  2012年中国分乡镇自然村庄密度(a)和R指数(b)空间分布
P 高程 降水 城镇
化率
交通
通达度
固定资产
投资
离中心城市
距离
农民人均
收入
产业
非农化
人均
GDP
人口
密度
劳均粮食产量 农业机械总动力 人均耕地面积
密度 0.49 0.64 0.59 0.51 0.43 0.48 0.40 0.40 0.41 0.57 0.41 0.44 0.38
R指数 0.65 0.53 0.60 0.56 0.45 0.53 0.58 0.41 0.42 0.57 0.42 0.51 0.41
邻近距离 0.60 0.81 0.70 0.80 0.47 0.83 0.61 0.44 0.59 0.70 0.68 0.57 0.63
Table 2  中国村庄空间分布影响因素地理探测P
Fig. 5  村庄空间优化重组的方案
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