Commercial space is typical of concentration of various activities, and thus always has great impacts on urban development and the evolution of spatial structure. The research on commercial space is a very important domain in Urban Geography, among which the impacts of shopping malls on the structure of urban commercial space has gradually been focused on by some scholars recently. Employing the software of ArcGIS and SPSS to conduct spatial and statistic analysis, respectively, this article explores the spatial -temporal patterns of the development of shopping malls in Guangzhou City and their relationship with the change of urban commercial spatial structure. The following conclusions have been drawn from the research: Firstly, the increase in the number and scale of shopping malls takes on a cyclical and jumping pattern, which is closely related to urban development. As to the spatial pattern, they originally concentrated in the urban center and gradually diffuse outward to the urban outskirts over time. Analysis of the elements underlying the spatial-temporal evolution of shopping malls reveals that population size is positively correlated with the number and scale of shopping malls, while correlation between population density and distribution of shopping malls is not obvious. Their locations almost coincide with the places with good transportation accessibility. The location of metro stations greatly influence the spatial distribution of shopping malls. Secondly, the spatial-temporal pattern of shopping malls is also greatly determined by the government’s strategy over urban spatial structure and the change in land uses. Thirdly, the rising of the commercial style of one-stop and experiential consumption also imposes large impact on the pattern. Finally, the paper examines the impacts of the development of shopping malls on urban commercial spatial structure. A flat ranking system of urban commercial centers has been brought about by the development of shopping malls, promoting the formation of polycentric urban commercial system and the upgrading of commercial levels. Based on the above analysis, the paper has some implications for the location choice of shopping malls in Guangzhou. Constrained by limited land, traffic congestion, etc., the number of shopping malls in Guangzhou will not increase too much. The growth of population size and improvement in traffic infrastructures will be conducive to the development of shopping malls in the inner side of suburb area. In the outer side of suburbs, the strong radiation of shopping malls can be taken advantages to advance the commercial environment. The city government can guide the orderly development of shopping centers based on different regional characteristics.
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. Spatial-temporal Evolution of Malls in Guangzhou City and Its Impact on Urban Commercial Spatial Structure[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA,
2016, 36(2): 231-238.
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Two aqueous suspensions, one containing crystals of uniform size and the other containing colloidal particles, were made with each of seven solid contact poisons (two DDT-analogues, DDT, rotenone, 2-bromomercurithiophen, dieldrin and endrin). The relative toxicity of each pair of suspensions was found in dipping or measured-drop tests on as many as possible of the species Oryzaephilus surinamennsis L., Tribolium castaneum Herbst and Tenebrio molitor L. In addition, some tests were made by injection of colloidal suspensions. In each test, insects were kept after treatment at two temperatures: 28 degrees C. and 11, 17 or 20 degrees C.; counts of kill were made after 24 hr. The tests measured three different kinds of temperature coefficient of insecticidal action. In the contact tests, the colloid was nearly always more toxic than the crystals. In all the tests, except those with dieldrin, the relative toxicity (colloid : crystals) was greater at the lower after-treatment temperature, i.e. the temperature coeficient of the relative toxicity was negative. But in the case of dieldrin, the coefficient was positive. The DDT-analogues, DDT, rotenone and endrin were more toxic at the lower after-treatment temperature, i.e. they had negative temperature coefficients of kill by contact action. In all these cases the temperature coefficient of kill by contact action was greater for colloid than for crystals. Dieldrin and 2-bromomercurithiophen had positive temperature coefficients of kill by contact action. With dieldrin, the temperature coefficient was greater for colloid than for crystals; but with 2-bromomercurithiophen, the reverse was true. The temperature coeficient of kill by injection was negative for DDT, but positive for dieldrin and endrin; the other poisons were not tested by injection. A possible explanation for the results of the contact tests is given in an Appendix. The explanation is based on a number of assumptions about the penetration of insect cuticle by solid poisons. These assumptions lead to the conclusion that the effect of temperature on the relative toxicity depends on the temperature coefficient of kill by internal action of the poison on the insect. This can be measured by injection tests. If it is negative or zero, the ratio of toxicities (colloid: crystals) by contact action, measured quite soon after treatment of the insects, will be greater at a low temperature after treatment than at a high temperature after treatment; but if the coefficient is positive, the effect of temperature on relative toxicity cannot be foretold. The experimental results seem to confirm the assumptions.
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