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地理科学    2016, Vol. 36 Issue (2): 256-264     DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.02.012
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
沿海滩涂围垦区土壤质量演变研究——以江苏省如东县为例
王琪琪1(),濮励杰1,2(),朱明1,李建国1,张濛1
1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,江苏 南京 210023
2. 国土资源部海岸带开发与保护重点实验室,江苏 南京 210023
Soil Quality Evolution in Coastal Reclamation Zones:A Case Study of Rudong County of Jiangsu Province
Qiqi Wang1(),Lijie Pu1,2(),Ming Zhu1,Jianguo Li1,Meng Zhang1
1.School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China
2.The Key Laboratory of the Coastal Zone Exploitation and Protection, Ministry of Land and Resources, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China
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摘要 

对江苏省如东县不同年限的滩涂围垦区和光滩土壤样品进行分析,运用SPSS软件对垦区间土壤指标进行单因素方差分析和差异显著性检验,采用土壤质量综合指数法进行土壤质量评价,引入土壤质量障碍因子诊断模型分析关键改良因子。结果表明:滩涂围垦60 a来,研究区土壤质量随围垦时间变化轨迹为“急剧提高—相对稳定—持续提高”。围垦前10 a土壤质量急剧提高,土壤质量指数(SQI)由0.19增至0.37,年均增长11.84%,垦区差异显著;围垦10~30 aSQI由0.37增至0.42,年均增长0.54%,围垦30~40 aSQI由0.42增至0.45,年均增长0.71%,垦区差异不明显,因此围垦30 a左右土壤质量处于相对稳定状态;围垦40~60 a土壤质量持续提升,SQI由0.45增至0.56,年均增长1.22%,垦区差异显著。土壤质量的障碍因子分析显示较低的TOC、TN和粒含量是土壤质量的主要限制因子,且与pH、盐分显著负相关,因此盐碱度降低是研究区土壤质量提升的根本原因,肥力提高以及土壤质地的改善是土壤质量进一步提升的关键。

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王琪琪
濮励杰
朱明
李建国
张濛
关键词 土壤质量评价障碍因子围垦海岸带如东县 
Abstract

Reclaiming coastal wetlands for cultivate lands transformed the wetland soil to agricultural soil, soil properties changed a lot. To explore the effects of soil ecological environment due to the reclamation activities in coastal zone and determine the key modified factors, it can provide guidance for soil improvement. In this article, soil samples collected from reclamation area under different years and tidal flats in Rudong Country of Jiangsu Province were analyzed. ANOVA was used to test the difference among soil indicators in different reclamation area(LSD test). The method of soil quality index (SQI) is used to evaluate the soil quality. The model of limiting factors diagnosis is used to analyze the key improvement factors of soil quality. The result shows that since 60 years from reclamation, the trajectory of soil quality change in study area is “improve sharply-relative stability-improve sustainability”. SQI increased sharply from 0.19 to 0.37 at the first 10 years after reclamation, average annual rate of growth is 11.84%,the difference is significant; SQI increased from 0.37 to 0.42 between 10 years to 30 years after reclamation and average annual rate of growth is 0.54%; SQI increased from 0.42 to 0.45 between 30 years to 40 years after reclamation and average annual rate of growth is 0.71%, there has no obvious difference. Therefore soil quality is in a relatively stable state after reclamation at 30 years. While SQI increased sustainability from 0.45 to 0.56 between 40 years to 60 years after reclamation and average annual rate of growth is 1.22%, the difference is significant. The limiting factors diagnosis showed that the lower TOC, TN and clay content are the major limiting factors of soil quality and have significant negative correlation with pH and salt, therefore decreased salinization is the basic reason for improving soil quality after reclamation. The improvement of fertility as well as soil texture are the key to further improve soil quality.

Key wordssoil quality assessment    obstacle factors    reclamation    coastal zone    Rudong
收稿日期: 2015-05-07      出版日期: 2016-06-06
基金资助:国家自然科学基金(41230751);国家“十二五”科技支撑计划项目(2012BAC01B01)和南京大学优秀博士生提升计划A(2014001A004)资助
作者简介: 王琪琪(1991-),女,山东聊城人,硕士,研究方向为土壤与土地利用.E-mail:wqqhouse@163.com
引用本文:   
王琪琪, 濮励杰, 朱明等 . 沿海滩涂围垦区土壤质量演变研究——以江苏省如东县为例[J]. 地理科学, 2016, 36(2): 256-264.
Qiqi Wang, Lijie Pu, Ming Zhu et al . Soil Quality Evolution in Coastal Reclamation Zones:A Case Study of Rudong County of Jiangsu Province[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA, 2016, 36(2): 256-264.
链接本文:  
http://geoscien.neigae.ac.cn/CN/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.02.012      或      http://geoscien.neigae.ac.cn/CN/Y2016/V36/I2/256
指标 未围垦 10 a 30 a 40 a 60 a 组间均方 组内均方 F Sig.
WC(%) 31.51±0.98b 26.48±2.52a 23.84±2.73a 26.17±3.67a 25.97±2.94a 52.15 8.59 6.07 0.00
容重(g/cm3) 1.50±0.03e 1.35±0.02d 1.43±0.03c 1.32±0.06b 1.40±0.09a 0.04 0.00 10.62 0.00
pH 9.06±0.02d 9.56±0.14c 8.70±0.34b 8.75±0.38b 8.05±0.26a 2.58 0.09 29.66 0.00
粘粒含量(%) 3.53±0.22bc 2.99±0.90b 4.51±1.15a 4.46±0.91ac 4.79±0.86a 0.00 0.00 4.70 0.00
粉粒含量(%) 69.15±2.77d 60.96±14.03c 70.52±8.68b 76.70±3.54a 81.81±1.43a 0.05 0.00 11.07 0.00
砂粒含量(%) 27.32±2.86e 36.05±14.90d 24.98±9.51c 18.84±3.93b 13.40±1.76a 0.06 0.01 10.97 0.00
EC(dS/m) 3.84±2.14ab 0.76±0.24b 0.14±0.05a 0.16±0.10a 0.13±0.03a 17.64 0.54 32.47 0.00
TP(%) 0.05±0.003d 0.06±0.002cd 0.06±0.004bc 0.07±0.02bc 0.07±0.01ab 0.04 0.01 4.52 0.01
TN(%) 0.02±0.001c 0.02±0.004c 0.04±0.01b 0.04±0.02b 0.06±0.01a 0.17 0.01 17.59 0.00
TOC(%) 0.24±0.08cd 0.22±0.05bd 0.31±0.09c 0.30±0.08cd 0.47±0.10a 0.10 0.01 12.52 0.00
脲酶
[mg/(kg·h)]
1.00±2.44b 9.45±6.41ab 10.64±4.12bc 24.73±33.61ac 28.40±12.96a 1136.48 357.53 3.18 0.02
酸性磷酸单酯酶
[mg/(kg·h)]
26.75±10.11d 45.22±44.68bd 76.16±41.03bc 71.12±26.01b 103.30±24.13a 7132.04 980.49 7.27 0.00
碱性磷酸单酯酶
[mg/(kg·h)]
17.93±12.43d 101.70±77.15c 155.82±45.40c 216.20±81.29b 372.09±70.13a 159173 4236.61 37.57 0.00
脱氢酶
[mg/(kg·h)]
0.93±0.34a 2.47±2.09a 3.17±3.42a 3.10±4.54a 3.28±1.38a 5.84 9.43 0.62 0.65
淀粉酶
[mg/(kg·h)]
2.05±2.74a 2.77±0.77a 2.87±4.36a 2.09±0.81a 2.06±0.64a 1.55 5.87 0.26 0.90
Table 1  研究区耕层土壤属性特征
评价因子 权重 转折点a1 转折点a2 转折点b1 转折点b2
WC 0.087 10 36 15 19
容重 0.076 0.8 1.6 1.0 1.2
pH 0.078 4 9.5 7 8.5
粘粒含量 0.065 5.0 35.0 20.0 25.0
EC 0.088 0.7 3.1 - -
TOC 0.071 2.3 - - -
TN 0.090 0.2 - - -
TP 0.081 0.1 - - -
脲酶 0.081 50 - - -
脱氢酶 0.072 4.5 - - -
淀粉酶 0.064 5.6 - - -
酸性磷酸酶 0.061 136 - - -
碱性磷酸酶 0.085 370 - - -
Table 2  评价指标权重及其隶属函数转折点取值
Fig.1  研究区土壤质量综合指数(注:含有相同字母表示没有显著差异,不同字母差异显著性水平在0.05%。)
围垦时间 pH WC EC TOC TN TP 容重 脲酶 酸性磷酸酶 碱性磷酸酶 脱氢酶 淀粉酶 粘粒含量
未围垦 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.07 0.11 0.07 0.05 0.09
10 a 0.12 0.06 0.01 0.10 0.13 0.06 0.05 0.10 0.06 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.10
30 a 0.04 0.06 0 0.14 0.13 0.06 0.10 0.13 0.06 0.10 0.07 0.09 0.15
40 a 0.05 0.08 0 0.14 0.15 0.05 0.05 0.11 0.06 0.07 0.10 0.09 0.15
60 a 0 0.11 0 0.17 0.15 0.06 0.11 0.09 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.12 0.19
Table 3  研究区土壤质量指标障碍度
pH WC EC 容重 SOC TN TP 粘粒
占比
脲酶 酸性磷酸
单酯酶
碱性磷酸
单酯酶
脱氢酶 淀粉酶
pH 1.000
WC 0.179 1.000
EC 0.261 0.576** 1.000
容重 -0.287 0.037 0.565** 1.000
SOC -0.623** 0.059 -0.380* -0.100 1.000
TN -0.728** -0.093 -0.409* -0.095 0.810** 1.000
TP -0.390* -0.067 -0.464** -0.413* 0.682** 0.785** 1.000
粘粒含量 -0.567** -0.225 -0.234 0.119 0.339* 0.421* 0.089 1.000
脲酶 -0.352* -0.026 -0.434** -0.354* 0.588** 0.750** 0.886** 0.001 1.000
酸性磷酸单酯酶 -0.471** -0.095 -0.443** -0.118 0.539** 0.654** 0.604** 0.221 0.621** 1.000
碱性磷酸单酯酶 -0.634** -0.157 -0.575** -0.192 0.683** 0.892** 0.720** 0.306 0.769** 0.777** 1.000
脱氢酶 0.082 0.308 -0.258 -0.383* -0.001 -0.014 0.137 -0.156 0.273 0.063 0.150 1.000
淀粉酶 0.278 0.095 -0.089 -0.093 -0.041 -0.159 0.080 -0.309 0.065 0.010 -0.063 0.101 1.000
Table 4  土壤酶活性与理化性质的相关性分析
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