1. Jinan University Soft Power Research Centre, Jinan 250002,Shandong, China 2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China 3. College of Enviromnent and Planning, Shangqiu and Normal University, Shangqiu 476000, Henan, China 4. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography Resources Research, CAS, Urumqi 830011,Xinjiang, China
The high and low temperature events were analyzed based on the daily temperature observation data from 34 meteorological stations in North Xinjiang during 1961-2010 by using the methods of linear regression analysis and Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution of the extreme highest temperature in North Xinjiang presents low value in the southeast part, and high value in the northwest part. And threshold value of the extreme highest temperature are a consistent upward trend, amount increases obviously in winter. The number of the extreme highest temperature processes increase linearly, while in Mid-Tianshan Mountains, there is an opposite trend. 2) The spatial distribution of the extreme low temperature in North Xinjiang presents low value in the east part, and high value in the west part. And threshold value of the extreme low temperature are a consistent downward trend in east and a consistent upward in west．The number of the extreme low temperature processes increase linearly, while in summer, there is a decrease trend. 3) As North of Xinjiang is an arid, semiarid-region, it means that the increase of extreme climate events should not be helpful for hydrologists, agriculturalists, emergency managers, industrialists.
. 北疆地区1961~2010年极端气温事件变化特征[J]. 地理科学,
2016, 36(2): 296-302.
Fengqing Jiang et al
. Evolution Characteristics of the Extreme High and Low Temperature Event in North Xinjiang in 1961 - 2010[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA,
2016, 36(2): 296-302.
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We compare the United States and global surface air temperature changes of the past century using the current Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis and the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) record [Karl et al., 1990]. Changes in the GISS analysis subsequent to the documentation by Hansen et al.  are as follows: (1) incorporation of corrections for time-of-observation bias and station history adjustments in the United States based on Easterling et al. [1996a], (2) reclassification of rural, small-town, and urban stations in the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico based on satellite measurements of night light intensity [Imhoff et al., 1997], and (3) a more flexible urban adjustment than that employed by Hansen et al. , including reliance on only unlit stations in the United States and rural stations in the rest of the world for determining long-term trends. We find evidence of local human effects ("urban warming") even in suburban and small-town surface air temperature records, but the effect is modest in magnitude and conceivably could be an artifact of inhomogeneities in the station records. We suggest further studies, including more complete satellite night light analyses, which may clarify the potential urban effect. There are inherent uncertainties in the long-term temperature change at least of the order of 0.1℃ for both the U.S. mean and the global mean. Nevertheless, it is clear that the post-1930s cooling was much larger in the United States than in the global mean. The U.S. mean temperature has now reached a level comparable to that of the 1930s, while the global temperature is now far above the levels earlier in the century. The successive periods of global warming (1900-1940), cooling (1940-1965), and warming (1965-2000) in the 20th century show distinctive patterns of temperature change suggestive of roles for both climate forcings and dynamical variability. The U.S. was warm in 2000 but cooler than the warmest years in the 1930s and 1990s. Global temperature was moderately high in 2000 despite a lingering La Ni a in the Pacific Ocean.
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ABSTRACT 1] A gridded land-only data set representing near-surface observations of daily maximum and minimum temperatures (HadGHCND) has been created to allow analysis of recent changes in climate extremes and for the evaluation of climate model simulations. Using a global data set of quality-controlled station observations compiled by the U.S. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), daily anomalies were created relative to the 1961–1990 reference period for each contributing station. An angular distance weighting technique was used to interpolate these observed anomalies onto a 2.5° latitude by 3.75° longitude grid over the period from January 1946 to December 2000. We have used the data set to examine regional trends in time-varying percentiles. Data over consecutive 5 year periods were used to calculate percentiles which allow us to see how the distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperature have changed over time. Changes during the winter and spring periods are larger than in the other seasons, particularly with respect to increasing temperatures at the lower end of the maximum and minimum temperature distributions. Regional differences suggest that it is not possible to infer distributional changes from changes in the mean alone. Citation: Caesar, J., L. Alexander, and R. Vose (2006), Large-scale changes in observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures: Creation and analysis of a new gridded data set, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006280.
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Abstract Fifty-eight cell lines in the National Cancer Institute drug screen were analyzed for their ability to efflux the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 as a functional assay for P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Using flow cytometry, the rhodamine fluorescence was measured for each cell line under four incubation conditions, i.e., after accumulation in the presence or absence of the Pgp antagonist cyclosporin A and after efflux in rhodamine-free medium in the presence or absence of cyclosporin A. The results in some cell lines were compatible with Pgp-mediated efflux. There was a significant correlation between mdr-1 expression and rhodamine efflux in the 58 cell lines (r = 0.788, p = 0.0001). Using the rhodamine efflux data as a seed for COMPARE analysis with the cytotoxicity data on > 30,000 compounds in the National Cancer Institute drug screen database, hundreds of compounds with high correlation coefficients were identified. Selected compounds were tested for reversal of cross-resistance in a multidrug-resistant cell line. A high degree of reversibility, up to 10,000-fold, for some of the compounds was noted in the presence of the Pgp antagonist PSC 833. This finding suggested that compounds with predominately Pgp-mediated resistance were being identified. Using these compounds as seeds for COMPARE analysis against a more restricted database of 187 standard agents, a series of standard compounds were repeatedly identified as having high correlation coefficients with the newly identified Pgp substrates. These standard agents, including phyllanthoside, bisantrene, and homoharringtonine, constitute an mdr-1 profile. New agents identified as being highly correlated with these compounds may benefit from clinical trials with Pgp antagonists.
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ABSTRACT Evolution of extreme temperatures over Portugal: recent changes and future scenarios Alexandre M. Ramos1,2,*, Ricardo M. Trigo2,3, Fátima E. Santo4 1Environmental Physics Laboratory, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense, Spain 2CGUL, IDL, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1700 Lisboa, Portugal 3Departamento de Engenharias, Universidade Lusófona, 1749 Lisboa, Portugal 4Instituto de Meteorologia, 1749 Lisboa, Portugal ABSTRACT: Changes in surface air temperature extremes over mainland Portugal since the early 1940s were investigated on the basis of daily maximum and minimum temperatures available from time series from 23 weather stations. The maximum (minimum) temperature decreased by 0.17°C decade–1 (0.19°C decade–1) for 1941–1975 followed by an increase of 0.49°C decade–1 (0.54°C decade–1) for 1976–2006, significantly higher than similar trends computed at the global and European scales. A large set of climatic indices was analysed to detect the presence of trends and quantify the variations of different indices for different periods. In the 1976–2006 period, many stations revealed statistically significant positive trends in the annual number of tropical nights, summer days, warm spells, warm nights and warm days. At the seasonal level, we detected statistically significant increments of extreme heat events for spring and summer, and a decrease of cold extremes in winter. We then used the HadRM3 output to study changes in the maximum and minimum temperature distributions and associated changes in the likelihood of extreme events in the future (2071–2100) under 2 change scenarios. Changes obtained for the future are consistent with those found since the mid-1970s in Portugal with an increase in maximum temperature of 3.2°C (4.7°C) for the B2 (A2) scenario in summer and ~3.4°C in both scenarios for spring. For minimum temperature, the results were similar, with increases for summer (spring) ranging from 2.7°C (2.5°C) in the B2 scenario to 4.1°C (2.9°C) in the A2 scenario. KEY WORDS: Extremes · Temperature · Portugal · Climate change · Regional Climate Model · RCM
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YanZ, Jones PD, Davies TD, et al.Trends of extreme temperatures in Europe and China based on daily observations[J]. , 2002, 53(1/3): 355-392.http://link.springer.com/10.1023/A:1014939413284
Ten of the longest daily temperature series presently available in Europe and China are analysed, focusing on changes in extremes since pre-industrial times. We consider extremes in both a relative (with respect to the time of year) and an absolute sense. To distinguish changes in extremes from changes affecting the main part of the temperature distribution, a percentile smaller than 10 (and/or larger than 90) is recommended for defining an extreme. Three periods of changes in temperature extremes are identified: decreasing warm extremes before the late 19th century; decreasing cold extremes since then and increasing warm extremes since the 1960s. The early decreases and recent increases of warm extremes dominate in summer, while the decrease of cold extremes for winter persists throughout the whole period. There were more frequent combined (warm plus cold) extremes during the 18th century and the recent warming period since 1961 at most of the ten stations, especially for summer. Since 1961, the annual frequency of cold extremes has decreased by about 7% per century with warm extremes increasing by more than 10% per century but with large spatial variability. Compared with recent annual mean warming of about 2-3 ° C/century, the coldest winter temperatures have increased at three times this rate, causing a reduced within-season range and therefore less variable winters. Changes in the warmest summer temperatures since 1961 exhibit large spatial variability, with rates of change ranging from slightly negative to 6 - C/century. More extensive station observations since 1961 indicate that the single site results are representative of larger regions, implying also that the extremes studied are the result of large-scale changes. Recent circulation changes in daily gridded pressure data, used as an indicator of wind speed changes, support the results by explaining some of the trends.