As a unique geographical landscape of arid area, oasis was the main space of human activity in arid area, and its change was the most direct reflection of environmental change. Recently, spatiotemporal change of oasis and its driving forces was one of the hot issues of oasis study. Jinta oasis, a typical artificial and agricultural oasis in the lower reaches of Beida River Basin in arid China, had experienced drastic change in the past 50 years, was selected as a case to study the spatiotemporal change and its driving forces. Based on Keyhole satellite photograph, KATE-200, Landsat MSS, TM and ETM images in 1963-2010, as well as field interviews and governmental socioeconomic statistics data, this study investigated and discussed the driving forces of Jinta oasis change during 1963-2010 by combining with participatory rural appraisal and principal component analysis. The results showed that oasis area and scale expanded gradually, and the area achieved its maximum with 539.47 km2 in 2010. Oasis changes had been resulted from the interaction of natural environmental changes and human activities. Human driving factors include population, policy, economic development, the progress of agricultural science and technology, environmental awareness, while the natural environment change was been represented by climatic factors (such as rainfall, air temperature) and runoff. In our study, the first and second main components of driving forces were population growth, water resources development and utilization, technical renovation, economic development and policy, the thirds was annual temperature, suggesting that human driving force played a dominant role. In addition, the main human driving forces behind oasis changes were varied in different historical periods. In 1963-1980, the dominant driving force was population growth and policy, whereas the dominant driving forces in 1980-1990 were the changes in agricultural production ways (such as household contract responsibility system) and population growth. In the period of 1990-2000, all sorts of driving forces interacted and associated mutually. Since 2002, economic benefit and water utilization were the dominant factors.
. 基于参与式调查与主成分分析的金塔绿洲变化驱动力分析[J]. 地理科学,
2016, 36(2): 312-320.
Dawen Qian et al
. Driving Forces of Jinta Oasis Changes Based on Participatory Rural Appraisal and Principal Component Analysis[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA,
2016, 36(2): 312-320.
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<h2 class="secHeading" id="section_abstract">Abstract</h2><p id="">Land-use/cover change of oases in the arid region of Xinjiang plays a significant role in the stability and economic development of the region. The oasis landscape change and its driving forces for a selected research area (150 Regiment in Shihezi District, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) from 1982 to 1995 were studied using landscape ecological analysis methods. Land-use maps at the scale 1:25,000 of the study area were used for landscape dynamics analysis. Eight types of land-use (patch type) were identified: cropland, vegetable land, orchard, forested land, residential land, abandoned cultivated land, wasted grassland, and sand land. The following results were obtained: (1) landscape matrix was changed from cropland (1982) to wasted grassland (1995); (2) areas of wasted grassland, forested land, and residential land had been increased while other types decreased, among which sand land, cultivated land, and abandoned cultivated land declined dramatically; (3) transition probabilities of vegetable land, abandoned cultivated land, orchard, and sand land patches were over 40%, while wasted grassland and cropland were about 20%. All of above changes are different in different sub-regions of the research area. And the changes have had positive impacts on water resource utilization, oasis microclimate, and the internal environment of the oasis because of the increase of waste grassland and decrease of sand land. The stability of the oasis environment was increased to a great extent due to these positive influences of landscape change.</p>
XieYuchu, GongJie, SunPeng, et al.Oasis dynamics change and its influence on landscape pattern on Jinta oasis in arid China from 1963a to 2010a: Integration of multi-source satellite images[J]., 2014, 33:181-191.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303243414001287
As one of the vital research highlights of global land use and cover change, oasis change and its interaction with landscape pattern have been regarded as an important content of regional environmental change research in arid areas. Jinta oasis, a typical agricultural oasis characterized by its dramatic exploitation and use of water and land resources in Hexi corridor, northwest arid region in China, was selected as a case to study the spatiotemporal oasis change and its effects on oasis landscape pattern. Based on integration of Keyhole satellite photographs, KATE-200 photographs, Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+ images, we evaluated and analyzed the status, trend and spatial pattern change of Jinta oasis and the characteristics of landscape pattern change by a set of mathematical models and combined this information with landscape metrics and community surveys. During the period of 1963a-2010a, Jinta oasis expanded gradually with an area increase of 219.15 km, and the conversion between oasis and desert was frequent with a state of 鈥渋mbalance-balance-extreme imbalance conditions鈥. Moreover, most of the changes took place in the ecotone between oasis and desert and the interior of oasis due to the reclamation of abandoned land, such as Yangjingziwan and Xiba townships. Furthermore, the area, size and spatial distribution of oasis were influenced by human activities and resulted in fundamental changes of oasis landscape pattern. The fractal characteristics, dispersion degree and fragmentation of Jinta oasis decreased and the oasis landscape tended to be simple and uniform. Oasis change trajectories and its landscape pattern were mainly influenced by water resource utilization, policies (especially land policies), demographic factors, technological advancements, as well as regional economic development. We found that time series analysis of multi-source remote sensing images and the application of an oasis change model provided a useful approach to monitor oasis change over a long-term period in arid area. It is recommended that the government and farmers should pay more attention to the fragility of the natural system and the government should enhance the leading role of environmental considerations in the development process of oasis change, particularly with respect to the utilization of the limited water and land resources in arid China.
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Expansion of farmland is recognized as one of the most important human alterations to the environment around the globe. Using field investigations and socioeconomic data in combination with thematic mapper images taken in 1986 and 2000, we analyze farmland area changes and factors correlated with those changes in Liangzhou and Minqin oases, located near the middle and lower reaches of the Shiyang River basin in Gansu province, northwestern China. Between 1986 and 2000, farmland area increased in both oases, but the increase was greater at Minqin oasis. Population growth was positively correlated with farmland area expansion in both locations, as were improved agricultural techniques and economic development. In Liangzhou oasis, farmland expansion was closely linked to the amount of surface water present, while in Minqin oasis, farmed area growth was affected by environmental and weather conditions. These results suggest that economic development at Liangzhou oasis may be leading to environmental degradation downstream, at Minqin oasis.
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<h2 class="secHeading" id="section_abstract">Abstract</h2><p id="">Land change is often studied with Markov models to develop a probability transition matrix. The existing methods dependent on such matrixes cannot effectively characterize some important aspects associated with land change such as status, direction, trend and regional variations. This study presents mathematical models to quantify these elements, defining unbalanced, quasi-balanced and balanced status, one- and two-way transitions and the rising or falling trends. Using these models and remote-sensing imageries, the landscape was studied for a case area, the oasis of Sangong River in Xinjiang, Northwest China where typical arid conditions prevail. Land expansion and contraction among various land types and for the entire oasis were analyzed for the periods of 1978–1987, 1978–1998 and 1987–1998. The changes were closely related to a strong economic growth after the land-reform campaign and adoption of the market economy in China in the 1980s to early 1990s, a process not strictly Markovian that requires stationarity and randomness. Information on land-change status and trend is important for a better understanding of the underlying driving processes but also for land-use planning and decision-making.</p>
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Identifying the primary causes and examining the processes and trends of land use change are crucial for land use planning, utilization of regional resources and environment management. Combining the ecological quantity analysis with GIS technology, based on the land use data and remote sense images, the changes of land use and land cover and the driving force were analyzed in the mainstream of the Tarim River from 1973 to 2005. The results showed that the areas of cropland and built-up land increased obviously, grassland, forest and wetland decreased and unused land increased first and then decreased. The major patterns of land use change were from grassland (major source), woodland, unused land and wetland to cropland, from a great lot of cropland to built-up land, as well as from grassland (occupying 30 %), woodland and wetland to unused land. Land use change underwent a process of obvious change-slow change-obvious change-tremendous change in the period of 1973-2005. The influence of natural factors including elevation, slope, soil types, distance from river course and climate change on land use and land cover change was limited. Population growth, economic development and industry policy were the dominant driving force for land use and land cover change in the mainstream of the Tarim River. The sustainable use of land resources is significant to keep economic development and environmental protection in arid inland river basin.
锛 Abstract: Agricultural oasis in Minle County expanded continuously in the past 60 years, but with fluctuations. Based on field interviews, statistical data, and GIS data, this paper analyzed driving human forces of agricultural oasis expansion in Minle County. It is argued that human factors including population growth, change in agricultural operation system and policies related, and economic benefits played a decisive role in oasis expansion. The dominant driving human factors varied according to socio-economic contexts. During 1949 and 1980, the dominant driving force was population growth, whereas the dominant driving forces during 1981 and 2003 were change in agricultural operation system and population growth. Since 2004, the dominant force was economic benefit.
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Nuclear quantum mechanical tunnelling is important in enzyme-catalysed H-transfer reactions. This viewpoint has arisen after a number of experimental studies have described enzymatic reactions with kinetic isotope effects that are significantly larger than the semiclassical limit. Other experimental evidence for tunnelling, and the potential role of promoting vibrations that transiently compress the reaction barrier, is more indirect, being derived from the interpretation of e.g. mutational analyses of enzyme systems and temperature perturbation studies of reaction rates/kinetic isotope effects. Computational simulations have, in some cases, determined exalted kinetic isotope effects and tunnelling contributions, and identified putative promoting vibrations. In this review, we present the available evidence – both experimental and computational – for environmentally-coupled Htunnelling in several enzyme systems, namely aromatic amine dehydrogenase and members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. We then consider the relative importance of tunnelling contributions to these reactions. We find that the tunnelling contribution to these reactions confers a rate enhancement of 651000-fold. Without tunnelling, a 1000-fold reduction in activity would seriously impair cellular metabolism. We therefore infer that tunnelling is crucial to host organism viability thereby emphasising the general importance of tunnelling in biology.
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BürgiM, Hersperger AM, SchneebergerN.Driving forces of landscape change: Current and new directions[J]., 2004,19(8):857-868.
<a name="Abs1"></a>The concept of driving forces is gaining increasing attention in landscape-change research. We summarize the state of the art of this field and present new conceptual and methodological directions for the study of driving forces of landscape changes. These new directions address four major challenges faced by landscape-change studies, i.e., studying processes and not merely spatial patterns, extrapolating results in space and time, linking data of different qualities, and considering culture as a driver of landscape change. The proposed research directions include: studying landscape change across borders and transects, focusing on persistence as well as change, investigating rates of change, considering attractors of landscape change, targeting correlation and causality, and searching for precursors of landscape change. Based on established knowledge and the new approaches we outline a standard procedure to study driving forces of landscape change. We anticipate that our analytical and systematic approach increases the relevance of studies of landscape change for science as well as for the solution of real world problems.