地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (3): 352-358.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.03.005

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在华跨国公司功能区位的时空演化研究

王俊松1(), 颜燕2,3()   

  1. 1.华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院创新战略研究中心,上海 200062
    2. 北京大学国家发展研究院,北京 100871
    3. 北京大学-林肯研究院城市发展与土地政策研究中心,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2014-07-31 修回日期:2014-11-07 出版日期:2016-03-20 发布日期:2016-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    王俊松(1983-),女,安徽利辛人,讲师,博士,主要从事产业和区域创新研究。E-mail: wjsenjoy@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学青年基金(41301117)资助

Spatio-temporal Evolution of Function Locations of Multinational Corporations in China

Junsong Wang1(), Yan Yan2,3()   

  1. 1. Institutional for Innovation and Strategic Studies, School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. National School of Development, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    3. Peking University-Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2014-07-31 Revised:2014-11-07 Online:2016-03-20 Published:2016-03-20
  • Supported by:
    Under the auspices of National Nature Science Foundation of China (41301117)

摘要:

基于1979~2012年财富500强外资跨国公司在华投资数据探讨跨国公司功能区位在中国的时空演化趋势及原因。研究表明,跨国公司在中国进行多次连续跟进投资,其功能布局及演化与城市等级及区域经济环境变化高度相关。总部和研发集聚在一线城市,生产和销售分布在省会和周边城市。跨国公司在华区位重心出现显著的变化,早期的功能区位在空间上呈现较明显的错位,研发和总部重心集聚在北京,而生产和销售重心集聚在华南地区,随着区域环境的变化,研发功能重心向南偏移,生产和销售重心向北方转移,各功能重心倾向于从空间上集聚在一起。研究表明,区域格局的变化是影响跨国公司功能区位重心演化的重要原因。

关键词: 跨国公司, 功能区位, 全球500强, 在华投资, 时空演化

Abstract:

With the development of Chinese transition, multinational corporations (MNCs) of fortune 500 gradually expand in China functionally and spatially. The article intended to explore how MNCs functional locations evolves in China and the mechanism of their expansion using fortune 500 investment statistics during 1979-2012. The results show that, 1) MNCs have invested in China sequentially. Production institutions and office were set up in China first. Then headquarters, R&D and sales institutions were set up in China in subsequence. After the government published the provisions of foreign-funded joint-stock company on several issues in 1995 and China’s entry into WTO, foreign institutions entering in China have been grown quickly. 2) Spatially, different functions have different location preference. Headquarters and R&D institutions emphasize talent and information resources, and inclined to distribute in top cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. Production institutes tended to locate in low cost areas and distribute across different level cities. Sales and business service functions tended to locate in great market potential areas. 3) The article highlighted the trend of subsequent entering, function upgrading and gravity transformation of MNCs based on expanding pattern of Siemens in China. 4) The function distribution and evolution has much to do with urban hierarchy and regional economic environment. Headquarters and R&D functions agglomerate in first tier hierarchy cities, production and sales distribute broadly in regional center such as province capital and other cities. 5) The location gravity center of MNCs has experienced apparent transformation. In early period, headquarters and R&D facilities agglomerated in Beijing, while production and sales gravity center agglomerated in the southern China. With the change of regional development environment, the gravity of R&D institutes moved to south and the gravity of production and sales moved to north. All gravity centers of MNC function intended to agglomerate together. 6) The results showed that the transformation of regional economic pattern is the main cause of MNCs functional gravity evolution. At the beginning of opening reforms, the strategy of regional economic development gave priority to coastal areas. The main function of MNCs entered in China is production and sales, which were mainly located in the southern China. With the marketization and globalization gravity shifting to the northern China, the gravity of sales and production of MNCs were also shifting to north of China. The campaign of western development since 1999 induced production, business service, office and headquarters of MNCs shifting to west. The balancing of regional spatial pattern propelled MNCs function gravity agglomerate together. The vertical linkages of functions further have propelled the co-agglomeration of functions of MNCs.

Key words: multinational corporation, functional location, fortune 500, investment in China

中图分类号: 

  • K902