地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (3): 458-465.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.03.018

• • 上一篇    下一篇

1980~2013年新疆高空大气温度变化特征

柏玲1(), 陈忠升1,2(), 王祖静1, 赵本福1   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学地理信息科学教育部重点实验室, 上海 200241
    2. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-18 修回日期:2015-07-06 出版日期:2016-03-20 发布日期:2016-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    柏玲(1987-),女,河南驻马店人,博士研究生,主要从事环境变化与区域可持续发展研究。E-mail: bling1987yy@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(973计划2010CB951003)资助

Upper-air Temperature Change of Xinjiang During 1980-2013

Ling Bai1(), Zhongsheng Chen1,2(), Zujing Wang1, Benfu Zhao1   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang, China
  • Received:2015-03-18 Revised:2015-07-06 Online:2016-03-20 Published:2016-03-20
  • Supported by:
    The research is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, no.2010CB951003)

摘要:

基于1980~2013年新疆地区8个探空站逐日观测资料,利用Mann-Kendall非参数检验法,分析新疆30多年来高空大气温度时间序列的变化趋势、突变时间及二者的显著性,探讨其与地面温度变化关系。结果表明:近30多年来,新疆对流层上层至平流层中下层表现为降温趋势,对流层中下层呈升温趋势,对流层上层和平流层中下层降温幅度大于对流层中下层的增温幅度;新疆高空温度的变化存在明显的季节差异;新疆高空各层温度在20世纪90年代初发生显著性突变,晚于北半球地面温度突变年份,早于相对应的地面温度突变时间;新疆对流层中下层温度在不同时段和不同季节与地面温度的变化不同,1980~2013年二者均呈显著的增温趋势,而1998~2013年二者的变暖趋势均减缓,甚至还表现为微弱的下降趋势。

关键词: 高空大气温度, 变化趋势, 突变分析, 新疆地区

Abstract:

With the growing effect of global warming on the environment and socio-economic development, climate change research has become a hot topic and attracted broad attention from national government departments and the public. In its latest report for 2013, the IPCC has noted that the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.85℃ (0.65-1.06℃), and the annual average temperature from 2003 to 2012 increased by 0.78℃ relative to 1850-1900, a period of nearly 130 years (in 1880-2012), indicating that rapid global warming is an indisputable fact. However, temperature changes are not limited to the earth surface, but are extending to the troposphere and the stratosphere which are important components of the Earth's climate system. Changes occurring at the surface, in the troposphere, and in the stratosphere are three main components of climate change. As an indispensable foundation for climate-change research, the determination on the change trend of upper-air temperature has quickly become one of the most important directions of climate-change research in recent years. In this study, based on the daily observed data from eight sounding stations in Xinjiang in 1980-2013, the change trends, abrupt change points, and their significance of upper-air temperature were analyzed using Mann-Kendall (MK) nonparametric test, and the relation between upper-air and surface temperature changes were also carried on a preliminary discussion. The results are indicated as follows: in last more than 30 years, patterns of statistically significant upper tropospheric and mid-lower stratospheric cooling and mid-lower tropospheric warming are clearly evident. The cooling rate in the upper troposphere and the mid-lower stratosphere was much more intensive than the warming rate in the mid-lower troposphere; Annual temperature cycle suggests that the peak temperature shifts from July in the troposphere to February in the mid-lower stratosphere, indicating the necessity of seasonal trend analysis. There were apparent seasonal differences in the upper-air temperature change, the cooling in the upper troposphere and mid-lower stratosphere in autumn and winter were larger than that in spring and summer, whereas the warming in the mid-lower troposphere was more pronounced during the spring and summer; Abrupt change points of upper-air temperature at three layers all occurred around the early 1990s, which were later than that of the hemisphere temperature, but earlier than that of the corresponding surface temperature; Surface temperature exhibited a significant correlation with mid-lower troposphere temperature, but a remarkable negative correlation with upper troposphere, the mid-lower stratosphere temperatures. Overall, the correlation between surface and mid-lower troposphere temperatures was the highest, followed by the mid-lower stratosphere and upper troposphere temperatures. Temperature changes of mid-lower troposphere and surface exhibited some differences in different periods and seasons, both of them presented warming trends during 1980-2013, while showed cooling trends during 1998-2013. Furthermore, the downward trend during 1998-2013 was more obvious in winter, which suggested that the winter cooling held a dominant position in the temperature descending of the mid-lower troposphere and surface in the last more than 10 years.

Key words: upper-air temperature, variation trend, abrupt change point analysis, Xinjiang

中图分类号: 

  • P423.6