地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (3): 466-474.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.03.019

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松花江流域季节性气象干旱特征及风险区划研究

冯波1(), 章光新1(), 李峰平1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所, 吉林 长春 130102
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-29 修回日期:2014-11-20 出版日期:2016-03-20 发布日期:2016-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    冯波(1982-),男,黑龙江哈尔滨人,讲师,博士后,主要从事旱情监测预警及干旱风险区划研究。E-mail:fengbo82@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    水利部公益性行业科研专项 (201401014)、高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金项目(编号:20120061120075)资助

Characteristics of Seasonal Meteorological Drought and Risk Regionalization in Songhua River Basin

Bo Feng1(), Guangxin Zhang1(), Fengping Li1,2   

  1. 1.Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130102, Jilin, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2014-09-29 Revised:2014-11-20 Online:2016-03-20 Published:2016-03-20
  • Supported by:
    Under the auspices of the Governmental public industry research special funds for projects (201401014), Higher school specialized research fund for the doctoral program funding issue (20120061120075)

摘要:

利用松花江流域67个代表性气象站1960~2009年气象观测资料,采用标准化降水指数(SPI)为评价指标,计算松花江流域50 a中各季干旱指数,在此基础上分析了流域季节性气象干旱演变特征及规律,研究发现,松花江流域气象干旱呈现出明显的空间分带性和季节分带性。从地域变化来看,流域干旱区主要分布在东北、西南部;从季度变化来看,春旱和夏旱是流域气象干旱的主要类型,夏季干旱最严重,春季次之。建立评价指标体系实现了基于GIS技术的气象干旱风险区划,针对不同风险区提出相应的抗旱措施,为流域有效应对干旱灾害提供依据。

关键词: 松花江流域, 气象干旱, 标准化降水指数, 风险区划

Abstract:

In recent years, seasonal droughts occurred frequently in Songhua River Basin. Serious meteorological drought led to many adverse effects on agricultural production and ecological environment. The analysis on the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of meteorological drought can provide theoretical basis for countermeasures to reduce drought disaster. Based on observed meteorological data from 67 significant meteorological stations on the Songhua River Basin for the period from 1960 to 2009, the meteorological drought characteristics were studied using standardized precipitation index (SPI). Seasonal SPI during 50 years were determined in Songhua River Basin, based on which evolution characteristics and occurrence regularity of meteorological drought were analyzed in seasons. The variance of SPI in different seasons showed that the amplitude of drought variation in summer was maximum, which of autumn was the second. From the long-term view, the trend of spring drought decreased in Songhua River Basin, and the trend of summer drought and autumn drought increased, while basically no change in winter. During the period from 1960s to 1970s, spring drought and summer drought occurred frequently. In 1980s, drought situation was normal. However, after 1990s, summer drought and autumn drought increased obviously. Winter drought did not have great changes during the whole period. Influences of meteorological drought on basin irrigation were analyzed combined with GIS technology to provide a reasonable basis for combating drought. The results showed that meteorological drought of Songhua River Basin presented obvious spatial and seasonal zoning. By the view of geographical changing, regions influenced by drought mainly distributed in the northeastern and southwestern Songhua River Basin. By the view of seasonal changing, drought in spring and summer was the common types of drought. Summer drought was the most serious, and spring drought was the second. Spring drought was the most serious in the west of Jilin Province (eg. Baicheng City and Songyuan City). Summer drought was serious in the southeastern (eg. Mudanjiang City and Jilin City). The distribution of autumn drought was uniform in the studying area. Winter drought only occurred in partial region (eg. Baicheng City). When responding to drought, risk management model should be adopted to avoid the drought risk and close attention should be paid on meteorological drought monitoring.

Key words: Songhua River Basin, meteorological drought, standardized precipitation index (SPI), risk regionalization

中图分类号: 

  • P339