地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (4): 603-611.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.04.015

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南北盘江森林生态系统水源涵养功能评价

刘璐璐1,2,曹巍1,邵全琴1()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟院重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-19 出版日期:2016-04-20 发布日期:2016-04-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑项目(2013BAC03B04)资助。

Water Conservation Function of Forest Ecosystem in the Southern and Northern Pan River Watershed

Lulu Liu1,2,Wei Cao1,Quanqin Shao1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2015-03-19 Online:2016-04-20 Published:2016-04-20
  • Supported by:
    National Key Technology Research and Development Program(2013BAC03B04).

摘要:

森林生态系统水源涵养功能是植被层、枯枝落叶层和土壤层对降雨进行再分配的复杂过程。运用综合蓄水能力法,基于森林资源二类调查数据,估算了贵州省南北盘江流域不同类型森林生态系统的林冠层截留降水量、枯落物持水量和土壤蓄水量,分析了流域尺度森林生态系统的水源涵养能力及其时空变化。结果表明:南北盘江流域森林涵养水源总量约6.13×108m3,单位面积水源涵养量629.85 t/hm2,森林水源涵养能力空间分布呈现东高西低的趋势;不同类型森林来说,阔叶林和灌木林对区域水源涵养总量的贡献率最大,而混交林的单位面积水源涵养量最高;不同林龄比较,幼龄林对区域水源涵养贡献率最高,达45.95%,但其单位面积水源涵养能力最差,过熟林的单位面积水源涵养能力最高;就坡位而言,平地和中坡森林对区域水源涵养总量的贡献率最大,山谷森林单位面积水源涵养能力最高,山脊森林单位面积涵养水源能力最低;近35 a来,随着生态工程的实施,森林生态系统水源涵养总能力以1 447.89×104m3/a速度持续提升,单位面积水源涵养量以每年5.33 t/hm2的速度稳步提高。

关键词: 南北盘江, 森林生态系统, 水源涵养, 综合蓄水能力法

Abstract:

Water conservation is a comprehensive regulation function of forest ecosystem on water resources through various hydrological processes, including canopy interception, litter containment and soil retention. Forest ecosystem in Southern and Northern Pan River watershed is one of the significant ecological barriers in the upper reaches of the Pearl River, and its water conservation function would greatly influence the local development. Especially, it is also a typical karst mountain area in China, in which water is essential to the ecosystem recovery. Based on the forest resource inventory data, the integrated storage capacity method was applied to estimate the water conservation amount of forest ecosystem and its spatiotemporal variation in regional scale was also analyzed.

The results showed that the water conservation amount of forest ecosystem in the study area could reach to approximately 6.13×108 m3, in which the soil contributed to 73.65%. The broad-leaved forest and shrub contributed largest to the amount of water conservation(reaching 52.42%), while the bamboos contributed least. Analysis on different stand age showed that the young forest contributed largest to the amount of water conservation (reaching 45.95%). Forest in the middle of the mountain contributed largest to the amount of water conservation with the proportion of 75.46%. In terms of slope position, forest in middle slope and flat ground contributed largest to the amount of water conservation, while forest in valley contributed least. In recent 35 years, with the implementation of ecological projects, water conservation amount of forest ecosystem in study area was increased with the rate of 14 478 865 m3/a.

In terms of water conservation capacity per unit area, the forest ecosystem in the study area could reach to 629.85 t/hm2, which was higher in eastern part and lower in western. Water conservation capacity was varied for different forest types, in which the mixed forest was largest (reaching 851.78 t/hm2). Over-mature forest was highest in water conservation capacity (reaching 909.84 t/hm2) while young forest was lowest. Forest in the middle of the mountain was slightly lower in water conservation capacity than that of the forest in the lower of mountain which was up to 763.46 t/hm2. In terms of slope position, water conservation capacity of forest in valley was highest, and forest in ridge was lowest. With the implementation of ecological projects during the past 35 years, water conservation capacity in the study area continued to rise with the rate of 5.33 t/(hm2·a), thus, the ecological projects contributed significantly to the increase of the water conservation function of forest ecosystem in the Southern and Northern Pan River watershed.

Understanding the water conservation function of different forest ecosystems and their temporal and spatial distribution patterns is applicable for sustainable forest management and ecological recovery in Karst region, and useful for reaching the aims of maximizing water conservation capacity of forest ecosystem.

Key words: the Southern and Northern Pan River watershed, forest ecosystem, water conservation, integrated storage capacity method