地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (5): 697-704.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.05.007

• • 上一篇    下一篇

北京城市居住空间形态对居民通勤方式的影响

谌丽1, 张文忠2, 李业锦3(), 党云晓2, 余建辉2   

  1. 1.北京联合大学应用文理学院,北京 100191
    2.中国科学院可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
    3.首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2015-02-09 修回日期:2015-06-23 出版日期:2016-07-20 发布日期:2016-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:谌丽(1985-),女,四川绵阳人,讲师,主要从事城市与区域发展研究。E-mail: chenlicas@foxmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41230632) 、国家自然科学基金项目(41001105)、北京市自然科学基金项目(9164027)资助

Residential form in Beijing and Its Impact on Residents’ Commuting Mode Choice

Li Chen1, Wenzhong Zhang2, Yejin Li3(), Yunxiao Dang2, Jianhui Yu2   

  1. 1.College of Arts and Sciences of Beijing Union University, Beijing 100191, China
    2.Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3.College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2015-02-09 Revised:2015-06-23 Online:2016-07-20 Published:2016-07-20
  • Supported by:
    National Nature Science Foundation of China (41230632, 41001105), Beijing Nature Science Foundation (9164027)

摘要:

借助GIS分析和多项式逻辑回归模型,基于5 066份大规模问卷调查数据对北京进行了实证分析,考察北京城市居住空间形态特征在城市空间上的差异,及其对居民通勤方式的影响程度。结果显示:北京城区和郊区的居住空间形态的空间分异显著,并且对居民的通勤方式造成了重大影响,超大街区不利于步行,而高容积率对小汽车出行有显著的抑制作用,高度混合的土地利用形态则能够显著促进居民选择步行通勤。性别、年龄、收入对北京居民的通勤方式具有影响,女性、中老年及低收入群体选择绿色出行方式的概率更高。结论表明居住空间形态规划是引导居民通勤方式的重要途径之一,据此提出了减少居民小汽车出行、促进绿色出行的规划建议。

关键词: 居住空间形态, 通勤方式, 绿色出行, 北京

Abstract:

In all mainstream urban planning theories, such as “smart growth”, “new urbanism” and “traffic-oriented development”, it is believed that small-scale mixed communities with sufficient public transport facilities can help promote the utilization of green travelling modes. However, the actual effects of urban form are still in dispute. Besides, there is little empirical evidence in China. As Chinese cities are facing a sharp rise in the volume of automobiles, transport related problems such as increasing carbon dioxide emission, environmental pollution and traffic congestion are becoming more and more serious, leading to a growing concern about transport demand management. Based on abundant literatures on the relationship between urban form and transport behavior, the article tries to put forward a theoretic framework based on the unique urban development background of China. It adopts geo-referenced residential form data and large-scale commuting behavior survey data in Beijing to investigate the spatial differences of residential form, as well as its impact on residents’ commuting mode choice through GIS analysis and Multi-nominal model. There are several findings generated here: 1) The residential form indicators vary widely across space in the city of Beijing. The first indicator, the scale of blocks, declines from urban center neighborhoods to peripheral neighborhoods. Besides, the average block scale is much larger than other mega cities such as New York and Tokyo. The second indicator representing the intensity of land uses is lower in urban center and exurb, and the peak level appears between Ring 2 and Ring 4. As for the third one, the land-use mix indicator, it is quite low in urban center because most parts of the district is traditional residential zone. This indictor rises in the surrounding areas, and goes down in some outskirt towns where segregated manufactory land uses or residential land uses are located. The differentiation of residential form reflects the change of urban development pattern in the city along with time. 2) Residential form indicators impose significant influences on peoples’ commuting mode choice. The over-sized blocks in suburbs of Beijing do not facilitate walking or bicycling commuting, while high-density land uses could reduce the probability of car travelling, and mixed land use encourages people choose walking for commuting. 3) We also find some socio-economic attributes which are often discussed in western literatures also have significant effects on commuting mode choice in Beijing. Low-income people are more likely to choose green travel modes because of their low affordability of private cars; besides, female, middle and old aged residents also show greater likelihood of choosing green travel modes given their relative disadvantage in terms of mobility. The findings shed some light on urban planning in the aim of encouraging green travel, that is, small scale blocks, compact and mixed land uses are also preferred in the Chinese background.

Key words: residential form, commuting mode, green travel, Beijing

中图分类号: 

  • K901