地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (5): 715-723.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.05.009

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地方创业与集群转型:一个理论整合的视角

符文颖()   

  1. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广东 广州510631
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-13 修回日期:2015-10-26 出版日期:2016-07-20 发布日期:2016-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介: 符文颖(1984-),女,海南海口人,副教授,主要从事产业集群和区域创新研究。E-mail:fuwenying@m.scnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41301109)、国家973计划前期研究专项项目(2014CB460614)资助

Local Entrepreneurship and Cluster Restructuring: An Integrative Theoretical Perspective

Wenying Fu()   

  1. School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2015-07-13 Revised:2015-10-26 Online:2016-07-20 Published:2016-07-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China (41301109), Special Prophase Project for National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (2014CB460614)

摘要:

在辨析地方创业概念和内涵的基础上,分析地方创业在集群发展不同阶段的作用和方式,并借鉴演化经济地理中最新的复杂理论,重点辨析在集群非线性发展过程中地方创业主体与集群结构的反馈过程,其中通过整合经济地理学中制度和关系转向的研究进展,提出必须特别关注在集群转型阶段地方创业主体的能动性,把地方创业过程看作创业家与集群内其他主体之间关系网络的制度-权力实践过程,这个实践过程的目的是为了使得新产业的技术范式和组织范式获得社会合理性,从而提高集群弹性,并促进集群转型和更新。

关键词: 地方创业, 产业集群, 集群转型, 关系网络

Abstract:

The perspective of entrepreneurial agents for evolutionary investigation on the mechanisms of industrial cluster restructuring is particularly useful for understanding the bottom-up constructing process of restructuring. Based on the discussion on the content of entrepreneurship and concept definition of local entrepreneurship, this article proceeds with the theoretical analysis on the relationship between local entrepreneurship and cluster evolution. In the cluster formation phase, new firms relying upon the similar working experiences and diversifying firms are the critical mass owing to opportunities of interactive learning. In the cluster development phase, localized spin-off dynamics account for the rapid expansion of existing industries. When the cluster matures, the cluster paradox emerges. Agglomeration economies boost the performance of the incumbent firms, but meanwhile increases the degree of competition between new firms and the risk of spillover. In this case, specialized clusters tend to enter the phase of lock-in in particular in face of economic restructuring. Industrial structures with related diversification helps the restructuring of the clusters. However, the structure-determined view tends to overlook the agency of economic actors. Complex theory in evolutionary economic geography views cluster development as a non-linear process in arguing that the decline of clusters is not inevitable and clusters can be upgraded and restructured with new technology or new resources. Relying on the complex thinking in resilience theory, it highlights the new path creation as processes triggered by external shock events, and are jointly formed by existing socio-cultural environment for new business and active initiative taken by the entrepreneurs and their networks. The article tries to integrate the relational and institutional perspective in order to understand the local entrepreneurship as a power practice to legitimize new institutions for new technologies, which is placed in the relational geometries with other cluster agents, such as the local government, global lead firms and related institutes. It is argued that research attention on entrepreneurial attributes and background, as well as their network power is critical for the understandings on cluster evolution mechanism. Last, the direction for future studies on entrepreneurship-driven cluster restructuring within the China transition context is put forward. Firstly, investigation into the role of entrepreneurship should acknowledge the strategic initiatives of different types of entrepreneurs in different industrial milieus and regional circumstances. The interaction and network between local entrepreneurs and other cluster agents should become the research focus in studies of Chinese coastal regions in times of economic restructuring. Secondly, focus on the micro-scale entrepreneurial space should be placed in order to shed light on policy implications on the establishment of start-up parks. The entrepreneurial communities have been rapidly emerging as one of the new urban space in China, which helps to strengthen the trust and sense of identity, and forms the pivotal base for the power practice of the entrepreneurs with other agents.

Key words: local entrepreneurship, industrial cluster, cluster restructuring, relational networks

中图分类号: 

  • K902