地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (8): 1212-1218.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.08.012

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长白山苔原带优势植物种的分布格局及其关联性研究

靳英华1(), 许嘉巍1(), 刘丽娜1, 贺红士1, 陶岩1, 宗盛伟1, 杜海波1, 王雷1, 朱瑞帅1   

  1. 1.东北师范大学地理科学学院,吉林 长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2015-10-16 修回日期:2015-12-23 出版日期:2016-08-20 发布日期:2016-08-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:靳英华(1968-),女,博士,副教授,主要从事自然地理学研究。E-mail: jinyh796@nenu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571078,41171072)、长白山科学研究院开放基金项目(201501)、国家地震局行业专项(201208005)资助

Spatial Distribution Pattern and Associations of Dominant Plant Species in the Alpine Tundra of the Changbai Mountains

Yinghua Jin1(), Jiawei Xu1(), Lina Liu1, Hongshi He1, Yan Tao1, Shengwei Zong1, Haibo Du1, Lei Wang1, Ruishuai Zhu1   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin, China
  • Received:2015-10-16 Revised:2015-12-23 Online:2016-08-20 Published:2016-08-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571078,41171072), Open Foundation of Changbai Scientific Research Academy (201501), Special Fund of National Seismological Bureau, China (201208005)

摘要:

通过开展植被样方调查,确定苔原带的主要优势种,分析优势种的分布格局及其关联性,从地理角度分析长白山苔原带植被变化特征。研究表明:长白山苔原带8个优势种中,草本植物已占6个。灌木中牛皮杜鹃(Rhododendron chrysanthum)依然为最主要的优势种,但笃斯越橘(Vaccinium uliginosum)的优势地位已被草本的小白花地榆(Sanguisorba parviflora)取代。草本植物聚集程度强,苔原植被存在草甸化趋势。除牛皮杜鹃与大白花地榆(Sanguisorba stipulata)之间存在较显著的负联结,排它现象明显外,多种优势种之间存在正联结,有弱的伴生现象,牛皮杜鹃和小白花地榆为强正联结,伴生现象更明显,草本植物与灌木伴生将长期存在。各草本植物入侵、定植、扩展机制多样。小白花地榆分布广,聚集程度较弱,以种子繁殖为主,扩展速度较快;大白花地榆、小叶章(Calamagrostis angustifolia)等聚集程度较强,以无性繁殖为主,扩展速度较慢,但竞争能力强,在适宜生境中,能驱除其它物种。

关键词: 长白山, 苔原带, 优势种, 分布格局, 关联性

Abstract:

Ecological environment and plant community has changed obviously to tundra zone in western slope of the Changbai Mountains during the last three decades. The space of herbaceous plant extended obviously, but the distribution range of shrub atrophied. In order to explore the tundra vegetation change characteristic from the perspective of geography, we carried out vegetation investigation to reveal the change, spatial distribution pattern and associations of the main dominant species of tundra zone in the Changbai Mountains. The results showed that: 6 dominant plant species are herbaceous plant among the 8 dominant plant species in the tundra zone of the Changbai Mountains. Although Rhododendron chrysanthum is still the main dominant plant species of shrubs and has a higher species abundance, a lower aggregation degree and occupies most habitats, but the dominant position of Vaccinium uliginosum has declined, living space has reduced. Sanguisorba parviflora has a high species-abundance, a low degree of aggregation. Sanguisorba parviflora and Rhododendron chrysanthum was significantly positively associated, and Sanguisorba parviflora became a strong extension of herbaceous plant. Herbaceous plants such as Sanguisorba stipulata and Calamagrostis angustifolia have a high degree of aggregation, present patch distribution, and have occupied part of habitats. The tundra vegetation of the Changbai Mountains has the trend of meadowization. Among mostly dominant plants showed a low correlation and had a higher degree of aggregation. It illustrates that each dominate plant specie has different choice of habitats and the pressure of distribution change get small because of inter-specific competition, so the change of tundra vegetation has stabilized. Except Rhododendron chrysanthum and Sanguisorba stipulata showed a significant negative correlation and had a obviously exclusive phenomenon. Among several dominant plant species showed a positive correlation and had a slight attendant phenomenon. Rhododendron chrysanthum and Sanguisorba parviflora showed a significant positive correlation and attendant phenomenon. It is visible that herbaceous plant and shrubs associated will exist for a long time. The herbaceous plant has a diverse invasion, colonization, and expansible mechanism. Sanguisorba parviflora has wide distribution, a low aggregation degree, because the predominant propagation mode of Sanguisorba parviflora was seed reproduces, it should have a faster extended speed. The predominant propagation mode of Sanguisorba stipulata and Calamagrostis angustifolia was asexual, their extended speed is slower, but inter-specific competition ability was stronger, in adaptation habitats, they can get rid of other species effectively.

Key words: the Changbai Mountains, alpine tundra, dominant species, distribution pattern, association

中图分类号: 

  • Q948