地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (2): 311-320.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.02.018

• • 上一篇    

近30年来长江源区与黄河源区土地覆被及其变化对比分析

刘璐璐1,2(), 曹巍2, 邵全琴2()   

  1. 1.成都大学建筑与土木工程学院,四川 成都 610106
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟院重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-04 修回日期:2016-06-04 出版日期:2017-02-25 发布日期:2017-02-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘璐璐(1988-),女,山东济宁人,博士,讲师。地图学与地理信息系统专业。E-mail: liull.11s@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41571504)、国家科技支撑项目(2013BAC03B04)、青海省重大科技专项(2015-SF-A4-1)资助

Different Characteristics of Land Cover Changes in Source Region of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River in the Past 30 Years

Lulu Liu1,2(), Wei Cao2, Quanqin Shao2()   

  1. 1.School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, Sichuan, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2016-02-04 Revised:2016-06-04 Online:2017-02-25 Published:2017-02-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Sciences Foundation of China(41571504), National Key Technology Research and Development Program(2013BAC03B04) , Qinghai Major Science and Technology Program(2015-SF-A4-1)

摘要:

基于20 世纪70 年代中后期、90 年代初期、2004 年和2012年共4 期土地覆被数据,利用转移矩阵、土地覆被状况指数和土地覆被转类指数,对比分析了长江源区和黄河源区近30 a来土地覆被与生态状况的变化特征。结果表明:2012年草地是两源区最主要的土地覆被类型,但黄河源区的草地面积占比比长江源区高17%,同时,长江源区存在永久冰川雪地及荒漠,黄河源区没有;从土地覆被状况来看,过去30 a黄河源区优于长江源区,长江源区土地覆被状况指数平均为16.82%,黄河源区为38.84%;从土地覆被转类来看,过去30 a长江源区土地覆被总体变好,黄河源区则总体变差,在20世纪70年代中后期至90年代初、20世纪90年代初至2004年和2004~2012年3时段内,长江源区土地覆被经历了变差-好转-持续好转的变化过程,而黄河源区则是变差-显著变差-略有好转,且黄河源区土地覆被状况的变化程度较长江源区更为剧烈;长江源区因分布有大量的冰川、冻土,自20世纪90年代气温升高开始,冰川冻土融化,导致水体与沼泽面积扩张,后期叠加生态工程的积极影响,使得其土地覆被状况持续好转,黄河源区则因2004 年以来暖湿的气候状况及生态保护工程的实施,使得土地覆被退化趋势得到遏制并逐渐呈现转好态势。

关键词: 长江源区, 黄河源区, 土地覆被, 对比分析

Abstract:

Land is the most basic natural resources that mankind depend on for existence and development. Land cover change is the most obvious expression of the dynamic impact of human activities on land surface system, which will have an important impact on regional ecological environment and will influence the global environment cumulatively.
Source regions of the Yangtze River (SRYA)and the Yellow River (SRYE) are important ecological protective screen in China,located in the Three-River Headwaters Region, which is known as the "Chinese water tower". In recent years, the land cover situation changed a lot due to climate change/human activities and some other factors. Based on the land cover datasets of middle and late 1970s, early 1990s, 2004 and 2012, this article analyzed the change characteristics of land cover and ecological situation and their differences in the SRYA and SRYE over the past 30 years, using the methods of transfer matrix, land cover situation index and land cover change index, and discussed the driving forces. The results showed that grassland were the main land cover types in both regions in 2012, but percentage of grassland in the SRYE was 17% more than that in the SRYA. In addition, there were glacier and desert in the SRYA, which was none in the SRYE. In the past 30 years, the land cover situation of the SRYE was better than that of the SRYA all the time. In terms of land cover change, the land cover and ecological situation of the SRYA became better, and had overall experienced a process of degeneration, slight melioration, and continuous melioration; while that of the SRYE became worse, and had overall experienced a process of degeneration, obvious degeneration and slight melioration, and the overall change in magnitude in the SRYE was more dramatic than that in the SRYA. Since there were huge glacier and permafrost in the SRYA, the warmer temperature since early 1990s made glaciers and permafrost melt, which made the water body and marsh expand and the land cover situation become better. The fact that land cover situation of the SRYE became worse in the period of 1970s and 2004 mainly because of overgrazing, warm and dry climate, while since 2004, the regional climate became warm and wet and that was helpful for natural ecosystem recovery. Meanwhile, reduction of livestock and the implementation of ecological project since 2004 also had certain positive effects on vegetation restoration in both source regions.
Analysis on the different characteristics of land cover changes in the SRYA and SRYE will enhance our understanding of ecological environmental issues and changes in the SRYA and SRYE, and provide reference for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of integrated ecosystem functions in different areas.

Key words: source region of the Yangtze River, source region of the Yellow River, land cover, comparative analysis

中图分类号: 

  • S127