地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (5): 672-681.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.05.004

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精明增长政策下美国城市多中心治理研究

张衔春1(), 马学广2, 单卓然3, 胡国华4, 孙东琪5   

  1. 1.香港大学建筑学院,香港 999077
    2.中国海洋大学法政学院,山东 青岛 266100
    3.华中科技大学 建筑与城市规划学院,湖北 武汉 430074
    4.四川省城乡规划设计研究院,四川 成都 610081
    5.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-18 修回日期:2016-11-05 出版日期:2017-05-25 发布日期:2017-05-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张衔春(1988-),男,安徽巢湖人,博士研究生,主要从事大都市区域治理与城市空间增长政策研究。E-mail: Xchun0127@yahoo.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41440005),中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金中国海洋大学项目(201564052)资助

Polycentric Governance of Urban Space in America Under Smart Growth Policy

Xianchun Zhang1(), Xueguang Ma2, Zhuoran Shan3, Guohua Hu4, Dongqi Sun5   

  1. 1.Faculty of Architecture, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 999077, China
    2. Law and Politics School, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong, China
    3. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China
    4.Sichuan Institute of Urban Planning and Design, Chengdu 610081, Sichuan, China
    5. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2016-06-18 Revised:2016-11-05 Online:2017-05-25 Published:2017-05-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (41440005), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China, Ocean University of China (201564052)

摘要:

以美国城市多中心治理为研究对象,提出实践中多主体共同参与的网络化治理是美国城市空间得以精明化增长的根本原因。首先定义多中心网络主体包括政府、利益集团、社会公众及电子媒体,并指出各利益主体所占有的资源、利益诉求及价值规范。构建包括资金支撑、技术支撑及信息支撑的多中心治理的支撑体系,进而得出政府自上而下资金、指导“软控制”与公共秩序维持机制;利益集团与政府之间合作竞争的推动机制;社会公众依托公民权利的实施反馈监督机制及电子媒体为中心的全网络信息发布机制4方面的运作机制。最后,提出中国城市空间的集约型增量增长和存量空间更新相结合的“精明化”路径实施启示。

关键词: 多中心治理, 精明增长, 利益主体, 支撑体系, 运作机制

Abstract:

Implementation of smart growth provides the valuable experience for land intensive development and urban renewal in China. However, there is scant theoretical research focusing on the actual operation mechanism of smart growth policy. Existing literature on the applicability of American smart growth under China’s context primarily focuses the demonstration of policy rationality and how to make it localize and ignore the local operational mechanism which helps the macro policy achieve good effects. This research believes that the primary reason why American urban space achieves smart growth is largely due to the polycentric governance. This study firstly defines the stakeholders of polycentric governance (i.e. government, interest group, civil society and electric media), as well as their occupied resources, interest demand and value norm. Besides, it further divides these stakeholders into two groups in accordance with their relations with land rights. Then it establishes the well-rounded supporting system, including fund supporting, technology supporting and information supporting. Such comprehensive supporting system illustrates how the resources exchange among different stakeholders enable them achieve their objectives within the polycentric governance network. Furthermore, this research summarizes 4 operational mechanism of smart growth, including governmental top-down soft control of capital and guidelines and maintain mechanism of public order, promotion mechanism of cooperation and competition between government and interest group, feedback and supervision mechanism of implementation based on the citizens’ right, and whole network information releasing mechanism with the electric medium as the center. Such 4 operation mechanism enable the smart growth policy obtain great achievements on controlling of urban sprawl. In the final part, this study rethinks and makes a comparison on land development between China and America to point out useful suggestion on the path of China’s urban growth, which combines intensive incremental land expansion and stock renewal.

Key words: polycentric governance, smart growth, stakeholder, support system, operational mechanism

中图分类号: 

  • F129.9