地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (9): 1382-1391.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.09.011

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圣彼得堡土地利用格局现状特征及形成机制

李晓玲1,2(), 修春亮3(), ШендрикАлександрВладимирович2, ЛачининскийСтаниславСергеевич2, 贺红士1,4   

  1. 1.东北师范大学地理科学学院,吉林 长春130024
    2.圣彼得堡国立大学地球科学学院,俄罗斯 圣彼得堡199034
    3.东北大学江河建筑学院,辽宁 沈阳110169
    4.密苏里大学自然资源学院,美国密苏里州哥伦比亚 65211
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-01 修回日期:2017-02-25 出版日期:2017-11-20 发布日期:2017-11-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李晓玲(1987-),女,黑龙江佳木斯人,博士研究生,主要从事城市地理研究。E-mail:lixl027@nenu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471141)资助

Characteristics and Mechanism of Land Use Pattern of St.Petersburg

Xiaoling Li1,2(), Chunliang Xiu3(), Shendrik Alexander2, Stanislav Lachininsky2, Hongshi He1,4   

  1. 1.College of Geography Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
    2. Institute of Earth Scinces of St.Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg 199034, Russia
    3.College of Jang Ho Architecture, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China
    4. School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211, USA
  • Received:2016-12-01 Revised:2017-02-25 Online:2017-11-20 Published:2017-11-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (41471141).

摘要:

以圣彼得堡市为例,依据1948、1987和2016年土地利用数据计算居住、工业和商业用地的区位熵值并分析其变化,基于统计小区、圈层式及扇形分布3个视角,运用GIS分析计划与市场经济影响下的城市用地空间分布特征。研究结果表明,居住、工业和商业用地的空间分布规律不同: 3类用地在城市整体空间分布中均表现出一定的分散特征,其中,居住用地空间分布表现最为分散,工业用地呈现出分区域性布局特征,相比而言商业用地空间聚集程度最高; 商业用地在核心圈层处于主导地位,工业用地在老城区圈层为主导地位,居住用地在近郊区圈层为主导地位,远郊区圈层仍处于初步发展阶段,城市景观发展尚未成熟;对比圈层式和象限式结构各类用地区位熵值分布结果,提出圣彼得堡市3类用地空间分布扇形结构特征明显,说明沿主要交通线路是现代城市用地空间扩展主要方式,其中工业用地在城市空间分布中占据更为有利的交通区位优势,居住用地次之,商业用地在城市中心区域中分布不足。圣彼得堡城市用地空间分布形成主要机制总结为以下5个方面:前苏联时期城市用地空间结构主要框架的保持;行政区划调整为城市用地结构改善提供了路径;市场经济下住房体制改革推进了城市居住郊区化;土地市场对土地功能置换进程作用较弱;产业转型缓慢导致老城区仍主要为生产中心。

关键词: 大城市, 城市用地, 空间结构, 圣彼得堡市, 俄罗斯

Abstract:

Urban land use in Russia experienced the transition process from the planned economy of former Soviet Union to the market economy of post-Soviet Union. This article used St. Petersburg as an example and analyzed spatial pattern of urban land use of 1948, 1987 and 2016 and its chanages. We calculated the location quotients of residential, industrial and commercial land using GIS analysis and characterized the spatial structure of urban land use based on spheres of perspective of statistical area and land use data. The results showed that residential, industrial and commercial land distribution patterns are different. 1) Three land uses in the overall spatial distribution showed a certain degree of dispersion. Among them, residential land was the most dispersed, industrial land showed subregional distribution characteristics, in contrast, commercial land showed the highest level of aggregation; 2) Commercial land was dominant in the core circle, industrial land was dominant in the old town ring, and all three land use types showed highest intermix in this area spheres, and the outer suburbs circle was still in the initial stage of development, indicating that urban landscape development in this area was not yet mature; 3) Comparing location entropy of land use of quadrant and circle type, we found three land use types in St. Petersburg showing obvious characteristics of sector structure, indicating that the main form of urban space expansion was along major transport routes, where industrial land occupied a more favorable traffic sites in urban spatial distribution, followed by residential land, with inadequate distribution of commercial land in the city center area. Urban land use distribution in St. Petersburg was affected mainly by the planned economy and the present urban land development is still in the process of suburbanization. This study explored the impact of spatial development of metropolitan land use under different systems. It may provide a reference for other metropolitans experienced similar social transformation. Formations of land use pattern of St Petersburg may have the following five mechanisms: maintaining the mainframe of the former Soviet Union land use structure ; the administrative adjustments for improving the city land use structure; housing system reform under the market economy that promoted the city residential suburbanization; relatively weak land market function in land replacement process and the role of industrial transformation; old city still being the main production center, which slowed the land use transformation.

Key words: metropolis, urban land, spatial structure, St. Petersburg, Russia

中图分类号: 

  • TU984.1