地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (10): 1449-1458.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.001

• •    下一篇

精准扶贫视角下中国东北农村贫困地域性特征及成因

王士君1(), 田俊峰2(), 王彬燕1, 程利莎1, 杜国明3   

  1. 1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,吉林 长春 130024
    2.吉林大学地球科学学院,吉林 长春 130061
    3.东北农业大学资源与环境学院,黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-15 修回日期:2017-07-21 出版日期:2017-10-20 发布日期:2017-10-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王士君(1963-),男,吉林长春人,教授,博士,主要从事经济地理和城市地理学研究。E-mail:wangsj@nenu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41630749、41471142)资助

Regional Characteristics and Causes of Rural Poverty in Northeast China from the Perspective of Targeted Poverty Alleviation

Shijun Wang1(), Junfeng Tian2(), Binyan Wang1, Lisha Cheng1, Guoming Du3   

  1. 1.School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin, China
    2. School of Earth Sciences, Jilin University , Changchun 130061, Jilin, China
    3. School of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, Heilongjiang, China
  • Received:2017-05-15 Revised:2017-07-21 Online:2017-10-20 Published:2017-10-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (41630749, 41471142)

摘要:

基于结构性问卷,采用入户访谈及问卷调查的方法,解析中国东北地区农村贫困空间格局与地域性特征,并对区域内部典型农村贫困区贫困问题的形成机制进行探讨与解构。研究认为: 东北地区农村贫困人口与贫困县集中分布在大兴安岭南麓和黑、吉、辽三省与内蒙古东部交界地区以及中俄、中朝边境地区,形成东、西两大片区,西部片区呈带状自北向南延伸,东部片区内存在两个团块状贫困人口集聚区,整体表现出“大集聚,小分散”的空间分布特征。 区域内部存在5个农村贫困高发区,分别为中俄北部边境贫困高发区、中俄东部边境贫困高发区、松嫩平原贫困高发区、西部贫困高发区、中朝边境贫困高发区;农村贫困发生率“北高南低,西低东高”的特征明显。农村贫困群体以中老年人为主,文化水平整体较低,吃穿与医疗保障问题突出;罹患疾病以及耕地不足、耕地利用率低是导致东北地区农村贫困的主因,发展现代农业和外出务工是消除贫困的重要途径。 区域内部存在西部农牧交错区、东部边境山地朝鲜族聚居区、东部平原与丘陵过渡区三大典型农村贫困区,西部农牧交错区农村贫困问题的产生主要受农业生产结构单一、农产品市场价格下行、农户自身思想认识落后、基础设施建设滞后、区域自然生态条件不利等多种因素的协同影响;东部边境山地朝鲜族聚居区农村贫困问题主要由劳动年龄人口的持续性外流所引发的系列效应导致;东部平原与丘陵过渡区农村贫困问题的出现主要受地理位置偏远、地形复杂导致自然灾害多发、耕地资源不足的影响。

关键词: 精准扶贫, 农村贫困, 地域性特征, 贫困县, 东北地区

Abstract:

Based on the structured questionnaires, this article uses the methods of questionnaire investigation and interview to analyze the spatial pattern and regional characteristics of rural poverty in Northeast China, and then the formation mechanism of poverty problems in the typical rural poor areas is discussed and deconstructed. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) The rural poor population and poor counties in Northeast China are centrally distributed in the southern piedmont region of the Da Hinggan Mountains, the provincial boundaries between three provinces and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia, and the border areas of Sino-Korean and Sino-Russian. At the same time, there are 2 major poverty areas in the east and the west: the west area extends from north to south in a belt, and two mass poverty population concentrated areas are in the east area. On the whole, the poor population shows the spatial distribution characteristics of “big agglomeration and small dispersion”. 2) There are 5 high incidence areas of rural poverty in Northeast China, including the northern and eastern border of Sino-Russian, the Songnen Plain, the west, and the border areas of Sino-Korean. The incidence of poverty is high in the north and east, low in the south and west. 3) The poor are mainly consisted in the middle-aged and elderly people with a low educational level. At the same time, their food and clothing and medical security problems are severe. Disease, lack of cultivated land and low utilization rate of cultivated land, are the main causes of rural poverty in Northeast China, thus developing modern agriculture and going out to work are important ways to eliminate poverty. 4) In Northeast China, there are 3 typical rural poverty areas: the farming and pastoral transitional zone of the western region, Korean nationality community of the eastern border mountainous region, and the eastern plains and hills transition zone. The poverty in the western region is mainly affected by the single agricultural structure, low agricultural product market prices, backward farmers' understanding of their own ideas, weak infrastructure construction and harsh natural ecological conditions. While the rural poverty in the Korean nationality community in the eastern border mountainous areas is mainly caused by the continuous outflow of the working age population. And the emergence of rural poverty in the transition areas of the eastern plain and hilly areas is mainly affected by the remote location and complicated topography, which leads to natural disasters and the shortage of cultivated land resources.

Key words: targeted poverty alleviation, rural poverty, regional characteristics, poverty-stricken counties, Northeast China

中图分类号: 

  • K902