地理科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 272-283.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.014

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国植被类型区大气增温趋势及其不对称性研究

张慧1,2(), 靳英华3, 神祥金1, 李光棣4, 周道玮1()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,吉林 长春 130102
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3.东北师范大学地理科学学院,吉林 长春 130024
    4. 澳大利亚新南威尔士州沃加沃加农业研究所, 新南威尔士州 沃加沃加 2650
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-10 修回日期:2017-04-23 出版日期:2018-04-10 发布日期:2018-04-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张慧(1988-),女,吉林松原人,博士研究生,主要从事草地生态和农业气象研究。E-mail:zhanghui@iga.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41330640,41601048)资助

Rising Air Temperature and Its Asymmetry Under Different Vegetation Regions in China

Hui Zhang1,2(), Yinghua Jin3, Xiangjin Shen1, Guangdi Li4, Daowei Zhou1()   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, Jilin,China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
    3. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin, China
    4. Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, PMB, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia)
  • Received:2017-02-10 Revised:2017-04-23 Online:2018-04-10 Published:2018-04-10
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41330640,41601048)

摘要:

利用1962~2011年中国各植被类型区的452个站点的气温资料,分析了各植被类型区的年平均温度和极端温度随时间的变化趋势。结果表明:过去50 a间,中国各植被类型区年平均气温、年平均最高温、年平均最低温都显著升高,并且最低温增温速度快于最高温增温速度,呈温差减小的不对称增温趋势;同时,寒冷地区增温速度高于温暖地区的增温速度,其中寒温带森林的增温幅度超过亚热带森林的2倍。近30 a间,寒温带森林区和温带森林区增温速度减缓,其他各植被类型区增温速度加快,呈现出热带、亚热带地区增温速度高于温带、寒温带地区的空间特点;最高温增温速度在变快,最低温增加速度在变慢,多个植被类型区的最高温增温速度高于最低温增温速度,呈现出一种新的不对称增温趋势,即最高温与最低温间的温差在加大;过去50 a和近30 a间,生长季和非生长季的温度变化多样,并分别对年平均温度产生了不同的影响,而生长季和非生长季温度的不同变化分别决定于其最高温和最低温的多样变化。

关键词: 植被类型区, 气温变化, 不对称增温, 生长季, 非生长季

Abstract:

The long-term trends of annual mean temperature (Tmean), mean maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) were analyzed across 453 weather stations from 1962-2011 across 8 vegetation regions according to China vegetation regionalization. During the past 50 years, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increased significantly in all vegetation regions. In addition, the slope of temperature increase of Tmin was greater than that of Tmax. There was significant difference in slopes between Tmax and Tmin for all vegetation regions except for cold temperate forest, subtropical and tropical forests, showing asymmetric warming in temperature over time, i.e. the difference between Tmax and Tmin was gradually reduced. Over the recent 30 years, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increased significantly for all vegetation regions except for Tmax in temperate forest and Tmin in temperate cold forest. The rate of temperature increase gradually increased for Tmax, but decreased for Tmin over the recent 30 years. The rate of temperature increase of Tmax tended to be slower than that of Tmin on alpine steppe, cold temperate forest and subtropical forest regions, but faster on the rest of vegetation regions. However, no significant difference was detected for the rate of temperature increase between Tmax and Tmin in any other vegetation regions. The temperature in growing season and non-growing season varied greatly and had different effects on Tmean during the past 50 years and recent 30 years. The changes of temperature in growing season and non-growing season were depended on changes of Tmax and Tmin. For growing season, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increase significantly during the last 50 years for all vegetation regions except for warm forest region. In addition, the slope of temperature increase for Tmin was greater than that of Tmax, showing asymmetric warming with reduced difference between Tmax and Tmin. There was significant difference in rate of temperature increase between Tmax and Tmin on temperate forest, temperate steppe, temperate desert and warm forest regions, but no difference on alpine steppe, cold forest, subtropical and tropical forest regions. Over the recent 30 years, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin in growing season increased significantly for all vegetation regions. In general, the rate temperature increase accelerated for Tmax but reduced for Tmin. For non-growing season, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increase greatly during the last 50 years for all vegetation regions, showing an asymmetric warming in temperature with reduced difference between Tmax and Tmin. There was significant difference in slope of temperature increase between Tmax and Tmin for most of vegetation regions except for cold temperate forest, subtropical and tropical forest regions. However, there were not significant differences in the rates of temperature increases for Tmean, Tmax and Tmin on some regions, such as cold temperate forest, temperate forest and temperate steppe region, in non-growing season during over the recent 30 years. For the rest of vegetation regions, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increased significantly at a faster rate for Tmax and a slower rate for Tmin.

Key words: vegetation region, temperature changes, asymmetric warming, growing season, non-growing season

中图分类号: 

  • P49